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Full text of "FM-E 101-10 Staff Officers' Field Manual, Enemy Forces, Organization, Technical, and Logistical Data"

— if- 



ICERS FIELB 
MANUAL 

FORCES ' 
HON, TECHNICAL 



AND 

EjOOSTICAL data 

Qe&nte 20, 1942 




"CON HAD 



FM-E 101-10 



STAFF OFFICERS' 
FIELD MANUAL 



ENEMY FORCES 

ORGANIZATION, TECHNICAL, AND 
LOGISTICAL DATA 




BEGRADEO UNCLASSIFIED ay 
author of DOD DIR. 5200. 1 R 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON s 1942 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, October 1, 1942. 
FM-E 101-10, Staff Officers' Field Manual, EDemy Forces, Organization, 
Technical, and Logistical Data, is published for the information and guidance of 
all concerned. 

This manual is a compilation of enemy information and data to be used as a 
guide for the operations in the field of the general staff or a similar staff group of 
all units in war. 

Much of the data herein are not exact values but represent the best of available 
information. A constant fluctuation in the value of approximated data should be 
expected, to conform to the changes which develop in field conditions. In cases 
where experience has not indicated the limits of variation to be expected, a 
reasonable factor of safety should be allowed. 

When information which will be of value in this manual is gained in the field, 
it will be forwarded to the Military Intelligence Service, War Department. 
Revision sheets and added data will be distributed as found necessary. 

[A. Q. 062.11 (7-11-42).] 

By order op the Secretary op War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 

J. A. ULIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 

Distribution 

D(15); B(10); R(10); Bn(5). 

(For explanation of symbols, see FM 21-6.) 



ii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part One. GERMAN FORCES. 

Chapter 1. Organization. Paragraphs Page 

Section I. Governmental and geographic organization 1-2 2 

II. StafE and field force organization 3-5 4 

III. Division organizations 6-10 6 

IV. Miscellaneous combat units and Air Force 11-17 17 

V. Signal, engineer, and chemical units ... 18-21 22 

VI. Characteristics of materiel .. 22-25 26 

Chapter 2. Movement. 

Section I. Facilities _ 26-31 33 

II. Troop movements ... 32-34 46 

Chapter 3. Supply. 

Section I. General organization , _ _. 35-36 SO 

II. Classes of supply 37 62 

III. Supply columns and trains 38-39 62 

IV. Service units (army, corps, and division) 40-43 63 

V. Rations 44 56 

VI. Supply diagrams.. _ __ __ 45-49 56 

VII. Ammunition data 60-52 61 

Part Two. JAPANESE FORCES. 
Chapter 1. Organization. 

Section I. Governmental and geographic organization 53-54 63 

II. Type army organization 55 66 

III. Division organizations- 56-61 67 

IV. Air Force and miscellaneous combat units 62-67 71 

V. Supply units 68-69 73 

VI. Characteristics of materiel 70-74 75 

Chapter 2. Movement. 

Section I. Facilities 75-82 80 

II. Troop movements - 83-85 91 

Chapter 3. Supply. 

Section I. Organization and responsibility 86-87 105 

II. Supply data 88-89 107 

Part Three. ITALIAN FORCES. 
Chapter 1. Organization. 

Section I. Political 90 110 

II. Field forces, army and corps _ _ 91-92 111 

III. Division organizations 93-101 113 

IV. Miscellaneous combat units and engineers 102-107 126 

V. Air Force _ _ __ 108 129 

VI. Black Shirt militia units ...109-111 130 

VII. Characteristics of materiel _. 112-116 130 

Chapter 2. Movement. 

Section I. Facilities _ _ 117-123 136 

II. Troop movements 124-126 141 

Chapter 3. Supply. 

Section I. General data __ 127 143 

II. Supply units __ _ 128 144 

Part Four. MISCELLANEOUS DATA. 

Chapter 1. Uniforms, equipment, and insignia. 

Section I. German ._ ___ 129-131 145 

II. Italian __ ... 132-133 »146 

III. Japanese 134-135 148 

Chapter 2. Comparative army rants. _ _ _ _. 136 151 

Chapter 3. Comparative measurements. 

Section I. Comparative monetary units 137 152 

II. Weights and measures _ 138-139 152 

Chapter 4. Comparative map symbols for principal field units 140 154 



HI 



FM-E 101-10 



STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL 

ENEMY FORCES 
ORGANIZATION, TECHNICAL, AND LOGISTICAL DATA 

PART ONE— GERMAN FORCES 

CHAPTER 1 

ORGANIZATION 

Paragraphs 



Section I. Governmental and geographic organization 1-2 

II. Stall and field force organization 3-5 

III. Division organizations _ 6-10 

IV. Miscellaneous combat units and Air Force 11-17 

V. Signal, engineer, and chemical units 18-21 

VI. Characteristics of materiel _ 22-26 

(1) 



FM-E 101-10 

1 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 

3 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



Section II 

STAFF AND FIELD FORCE 
ORGANIZATION 



■ 3. Staff of Units. — a. Army. 



Chief of Staff 



Tactical 



I-a Operations 



I-c Intelligence 



Cavalry Officer 



Artillery Officer 



Engineer Officer 



Antitank Officer 



Advisory 



Supply 



I-b Supply and 
Adminis- 
tration 



Section IV 
Intendantur 
(same as QM 
and Finance) 



Personnel 



Signal Corps Officer 



Section II 
Adjutantur 
(same as G-l 
and Adjutant 
General 



Section III 

Feldjustizamt 

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I-d Training 



Section V 
Chaplains' Service 



6. Corps. — Same as army, except advisory officers are engineer, signal corps, 
and antitank. They command own arm within the corps besides advising 
corps and division commanders. 

c. Division. — (1) Same as army, except that I-a, Operations, serves as Chief of 
Staff in addition. 

(2) Only advisory officer is artillery officer who commands division artillery. 

(3) The following officers believed attached to groups of division staff : 

(a) Tactical group: 
Division artillery officer. 
Division engineer officer. 
Division signal officer. 
Antitank battalion commander. 

Officer in technical charge of motorized transport. 
Air liaison officer. 

(b) Supply group: 

Commander light columns and division train. 
Division provost marshal. 
Division postal service officer. 
Engineer officer 
Signal officer 



[Supply of material. 



4 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
4-5 



■ 4. Organization. — a. Army group. 

I 

GHQ troops 

I 1 I I 
Two to four armies 

b. Army. 

~~ I 

|Army troops] 

I I I I I 
Two to five corps 

c. Corps. 

I 

Corps troops 

1 i i i I 
Two to five divisions 

■ 5. GHQ Tkoops. — GHQ troops include — 

a. Mobile troops: 

Tank units. 

Antitank and heavy antitank units. 

b. Artillery: 

Medium, heavy, and superheavy artillery batteries. 
Artillery observation battalions. 
Observation balloons. 

c. Engineers: 

Engineer battalions. 

Bridge construction battalions. 

Bridging columns. 

Road construction battalions. 

Labor battalions. 

d. Smoke battalions. 

e. Signal Corps units. 

f. Miscellaneous: 

Survey (mapping) and meteorological sections, and propaganda companies. 

g. Air force units: 

Army cooperation units. 
Air signal units. 



5 



FM-E 101-10 

6 STAFF OFFICERS' 



FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FOKCES 



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6 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



c. Reconnaissance battalion. — 



Headquarters Signal Platoon 



—3 Ead/Tg— horse 
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3 81-mm Morts. 

2 75-mm Cav Hows. 

1 Horse Cav Tr may have been replaced by another Bel Co. Not confirmed. 
' Not confirmed. 



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FM-E 101-10 

14 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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20 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

15-16 



■ 15. Horse Akttllery Battalion. — Battalion consists of: 
Headquarters. 
Signal platoon. 
Survey platoon. 
Meteorological platoon. 
Three batteries. 

Two platoons of 2 75-mm guns, 1 LMG, and 1 20-mm MG each. 

Two ammunition echelons. 
STRENGTH: 

0—21. 

EM— 535. 
ARMAMENT: 

12 75-mm Mtn Hows. 
6 LMGs. 

6 20-mm AA and AT MGs. 



16. Motorized Machine-gun Battalion.- 



Headquarters Headquarters Signal Machine-gun Machine-gun Machine-gun Antitank 
Motorcycle Section Company Company Company Company 
Platoon I 1 



I 



I 



I I ] I 

Plat Plat Plat Plat 
(4 HvMGs per plat, (4 LMGs 
carried in light six- on mtrcls) 
wheeled trks) 



Hq 



Plat 
I 



Pl'at 



Plat 

I 



Plat 
I 



I 



STRENGTH: 

0—26. 

EM— 964. 
ARMAMENT: 

12 37-mm AT guns. 

36 HvMGs. 

20 LMGs. 



J J J J 

Sec Sec Sec Sec 
(37-mm AT gun per sec) (1 LMG) 



21 



FM-E 101-10 

17-18 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



17. AIR FORCE UNITS. — a. Organization.- 



No. of units 
involved 



Unit 



Planes 



Personnel 



Officers EM Pilots 



EM 



AIR FLEET 



A ir Corp s 



2 or more. 



I 

Air Div 



2 or more.. 



Wg 



Sqdn 



Air Corps 

I 



Air Div 



Wg 



Sqdn 



Sqdn 



864-6, 661 
432-2, 187 

216-729 

108-243 



18-27 



400-475 



Fit 



Fit 



Fit 



2-3 



6. Command. — Goering is the supreme commander of all elements of the Air 
Force. As such he has control of — 

All military aviation, to include: procurement of personnel and material, 
training, and the development of equipment, supply, tactical operations, 
air defense measures, AA artillery, civilian air defense, etc. 
Civil and commercial aviation, and coordination with military aviation. 
He is responsible to Hitler alone for all matters pertaining to the Air Force. 
Units assigned to duty with the Army or Navy are controlled by an officer 
responsible to the Army or Navy commander concerned with the operations of 
such units, and to Goering for equipment and training. 

Section V 

SIGNAL, ENGINEER, AND CHEMICAL UNITS 
■ 18. Signal Units. — 



Unit 



O 



EM 



Remarks 



Sig Bn, Inf Div. 



Sig Bn, Mtz Inf Div_ 
Sig Bn, Armd Div 



Sig Bn, Corps (Mtz).. 
Sig Bn, Armd Corps.. 
Sig Regt, Army 



757 
329-406 
2100 



Sig Bn, Mtn Div. 
Sig Co, Cav Brig.- 



Hq Op. Tp Co. Rad Co. L Sig Clm, partly mtz; 67 trks 
personnel, 35 trks equipment. Tp construction and opera- 
tion. Rad construction and operation. Rad and Tp inter- 
cept. Cipher and interpreter Sec. 

Believed as above but fully motorized. 

Hq Gp. Armd Rad Co. Armd Sig Co. L Armd Sig Clm. 
Rad and Tp operation and maintenance. Command 
vehicles. Ciphers. 

Hq Gp. 3 Tp Cos. Tp Operating Sec. Rad Co. L Sig Clm. 

Hq Gp. Armd Tp Co. Armd Rad Co. L Armd Sig Clm. 

Hq Gp. 1 Bn (Hq Gp, Tp opr. Co, Rad Co, L Sig Clm). 2 
Bns (Hq Gp, Tp Opr. Co, Tp Co, 2 Tp Cons. Cos, L 
Sig Clm). Communication to Army troops and corps. Ad- 
ditional communication to subordinates as required. 

Believed same as Inf except horse or horse-drawn. 



201 



Sig Sec, Tic Brig.. 



8 Mtz Tp Subsecs, 2 horse 
10 Mtz Rad Subsecs, 6 horse 
1 Cipher Subsec 



(Expansion of Cav Brig to Div, 
probably Co became expanded 
to Bn) 



2 L Tp Subsecs. Rad and Comd vehicle Sees. 

— _ 



GERMAN FORCES 



PM-E 101-10 
19 



■ 19. Engineer Units. — 



Unit 





EM 


Remarks 


Bn, In( Div 


26 


851 


1 per Inf Div.— Hq. Sig Sec. 2 part Mtz Cos, 1 Hv Mtz Co, 1 








bridge Clm. 1 tools Prk. 1 Sup Prk. Bridge work most 








important. 


Bn,MtzInfDiv- 


26 


851 


1 per Mtz Inf Div.— Hq. Sig Sec. 3 Hv Mtz Cos. 1 bridge 








Clm. 1 tools Prk. 1 Sup Prk. 


Bn, Armd Div__. 


30 


845 


1 per Armd Div.— Hq. 3 L Mtz Cos. 1 Mtz bridge Clm. 1 








Sup Prk. 


Bn, Mtn Div 


15 


420 


1 per Mtn Div.— Hq. Sig Sec. 3 Cos. Carries trestle bridge 








equipment, but no pontons. 


Bn, Cav Div 








Bn, GHQ 


38 


1249 


Hq. Sig Sec. 3 Hv Mtz Cos. 3 bridge Clms. 1 tool Prk. 1 








Sup Prk. Strengths of various units are same as equivalent 








in an Inf Div. 


Part Mtz Co 


4 


186 


2 per Inf Div— Hq. 1 Sup Sec. 3 Plats, each of 3 Sees. 9 LMGS, 








4 large and 6 small pneumatic boats. Men march; equipment 








carried in horse-drawn and motor vehicles. 200 AT mines, 








1,750 pounds explosives, 400 yards barbed wire. 


Hv Mtz Co 


4 


183 


1 per Inf Div. 3 per Mtz Div. 3 per GHQ Bn.— Hq. 1 Sup 








Sec. 3 Plats, each of 3 Sees. Transported in 9 Trks, each 








carrying 1 noncom and 16 privates, 300 AT mines, 1 LMG, 1 








power-driven saw, picks and shovels; and 3 Trks each carrying 








12 men, explosives, ammunition, picks and shovels, 2,200 








poimds explosives. 


Bridge Clm, Mtz 


6 


184 


1 per Inf Div. 1 per Mtz Inf Div. 1 per Armd Div. 3 per 








GHQ Bn.— Fully mtz. 2 Plats, each equipped with ponton 








bridge material. 1 Plat with motorboats, outboard motors, 








and pneumatic boat equipment. "Model B" equipage is 








carried. 


Tool Prk, Mtz 


2 


48 


1 per Inf Div. 1 per Mtz Div.— Fully motorized; carries battalion 








reserve of tools. 


Sup Prk, Mtz 


1 


29 


1 per Inf Div. 1 per Mtz Div. 1 per Armd Div.— Fully motor- 








ized and carries battalion reserve of explosives, ammunition, 








light tools, wire and smaller Engr stores. 800 AT mines, 4,400 








pounds explosives. 



23 



FM-E 101-10 

20 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 20. Chemical Warfare. — 





o 


EM 




Chemical Bn __ 


(appr 


ox.) 600 


Hq. Sig Sec. 2 Cml Proj Cos. Decontamination Co. 
4 cars and 20 trks per Co. Proj Co has 3 100-mm morts plus 
candles, cylinders, etc. 


Other chemical possi- 
bilities: 






Some tanks in Tk Regt equipped for emission of gas. Mtz 
Engr Bns believed to have flame throwers, gas sprayers driven 
by motor pumps, and smoke apparatus. 


Chwnical agents 






Main agents as listed below, nothing new of importance believed 
discovered. Possible use of ABSINE. 

(1) Blister gases. German — "Yellow Cross." 
Mustard HS. 

Lewisite I. 

(2) Choking gases. German — "Green Cross". 
Phosgene CG. 

Diphosgene. 
Chloropicrin PS. 

(3) Nose gases (toxic smokes). German — "Blue Cross". 
DA. 

DC. 
DM. 

(4) Tear gases. German — "White Cross". 
CN. 

CA. 

Bromine compounds. 


Offensive weapons and 
equipment. 






Aerial spray — Low altitude, mixtures of mustard gas & lewisite, 

or cither alone. 
Chemical aerial bombs— Highly developed by Germans. 
22 lbs— toxic. 

110 lbs — mustard, small or large burster for ground or 

personnel contamination. 
560 lbs— mustard, time fuze for action about 300 ft. above 

ground, covers 6,000 sq. yds. - 
Plain glass bombs or capsules, mustard gas. 
Projectors — 

105-mm and 160-mm artillery shell, mixed with HE. 
Mortars are equipment of chemical troops. Also possible 

adaptation of 81-mm mort. 
Gas grenades. 
Gas cylinders. 
Gas mines. 

Bulk contamination from mobile spray units. 

Toxic generators, large number captured from French. 



24 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

21 



■ 21. Smoke. — 








EM 


Remarks 


Smoke (Bn?) unit 






Hq. Sig Sec. 3 Smoke Cos. 2 Sec per Co (120 men). 24 vehicles 
per Co. Eight 81-mni morts per Co, 24 per unit. 1 Co equipped 
for decontamination. 


Smoke agents 






Generators and candles— Berger type mixtures. Pressure type- 
Drums of CSA and compressed air cylinders. 








Arty shell — not favored. 
Armored Force vehicles — smoke-producing apparatus. ¥ 
Engr units— smoke to cover working parties and locations. 
Aircraft — curtains and screens, using titanium tetrachloride. 



25 



FM-E 101-10 

22 STAFF OFFICERS' 



FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 

23 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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28 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
23 



•a 


Notes 






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and 1 13-mm HvMG, 1 
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29 

479414°— 42 3 



FM-E 101-10 

24 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




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30 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
24 



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31 



FM-E 101-10 

25 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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32 



FM-E 101-10 



GERMAN FORCES 26-27 

CHAPTER 2 
MOVEMENT 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Facilities ___ _ 26-31 

II. Troop Movements __ _ __ 32-34 



Section I 
FACILITIES 
■ 26. Animals. — a. Animal-drawn transportation. — 



(1) . 4-horse large field wagon (HF 2). 
Characteristics: 

Weight, empty 1, 760 lb. 

Weight, loaded . 4,400 1b. 

Weight behind each horse 1, 100 lb. 

Length less pole 14.2 ft. 

Cubic capacity 54, 000 cu. ft. 

(2) 2-horse light field wagon (HF 1). 
Characteristics : 

Weight, empty 1, 342 lb. 

Weight, loaded 2, 992 lb. 

Weight behind each horse 1, 496 lb. 

Length less pole 13.8 ft. 

Cubic capacity 48, 100 cu. ft. 

6. Number. — (1) Horses on hand in Germany: 

December S, 19S8 1BS7 1BS6 

3, 442, 700 -3, 433, 800 3, 410, 300 



Imports for 1938 numbered 19,576, so most of the imported horses must have 
been destined for the army. 

(2) Horses in the German Army (November 1, 1941) : 



Total 

Cavalry Divisions — 6,000 

Corps Cavalry Regiments (14 with 950 each) 18, 000 

Horse-drawn Artillery (230 with 2030 each) 466, 900 

Infantry Regiments (690 with 606 each) 418, 140 

Divisions (230 with 4201 each) 966, 230 

Total in German Army 990, 230 



■ 27. Motor Transport. — a. Total. — (1) Estimated total motor-vehicle equipment 
(including tracked vehicles, but excluding armored vehicles and motorcycles) 
is slightly under 500,000 units in the German Army. 

(2) Motor vehicle equipment of the Air Force and AA units is estimated 
about 135, 000 units. 

(3) Civilian vehicles prior to the war: 

Private cars 1, 300, 000 

- Commercial, etc 475, 000 

6. Cargo truck. — Characteristics: 

6-cylinder, water-cooled diesel motor. 

120 hp European rating. 

6 wheels, 2 axles (4 x 4, 2 dual tires). 

Maximum speed, 45 mph. 

Brakes — compressed air arid hydraulic. 

33 



FM-E 101-10 

28 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101 
28 



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35 



FM-E 101-10 

28 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



6. Gliders. — (1) The glider types which are considered to be operational are: 



Type 


Load 


D. F. S. 230 ... 


18 men or 2,834 pounds. 
23 men or 5,500 pounds. 
40-50 men or 20,000 pounds. 


Gotha242 


Merseburg '_ .. - - ._ 





(2) A fourth type, the Goliath, capable of carrying 140 men or 16 to 20 tons 
(35,000-40,000 lb.), has been identified, but it is not believed to be operational 
as yet. 

(3) The Germans appear to favor the D. F. S. 230 for troop transport. This 
glider carries one complete German machine-gun unit of 10 men with all equip- 
ment and ammunition. This glider has a gliding range in still air of 35 miles from 
10,000 feet, or 10 miles from 3,300 feet. 

(4) The Gotha has been used primarily for freight carrying and can be towed 
by several different types of tug. The gliding range is not known. 

(5) The Merseburg with its reputed load is wide enough to take a Pz Kw II 
tank, but with this load is too heavy to be towed by a single Junkers 52. 

(6) The Goliath has a twin fuselage, each of which can accommodate 70 men 
or 17,500 to 20,000 pounds. Towing might be accomplished by a special, high- 
powered tug or a team of three Junkers 52's or four Messerschmitt 110's. 

(7) The Germans are believed to have at least 4,000 gliders in operational use, 
with an adequate supply of glider pilots. The majority of the gliders are D. F, S. 
230's. Thus, in one trip, the Germans should be able to transport 55,000 men or 
15,000,000 pounds of supplies. 

(8) A glider Staffel organized for transport consists of 12 to 15 airplanes. 



c. Performance of glider tugs. — 



Tug 


D. F. S. 2S0 


Gotha t4$ 


Merseburg 


Towed 


Miles 


Cruis- 
ing 


Towed 


Miles 


Cruis- 
ing 


Towed 


Miles 


Cruis- 
ing 


Messerschmitt 109 .. 


i I 


500 
1,230 
1,050 


140 

140 
140 














Messerschmitt 110 _ _ __ . 


1— 












2 x Messerschmitt 110 








■ 1 
1 


280 
990 


140 
110 


Junkers 52 . 


1 1 
2 
3 
1 

I 2 
( 1 
I 2 


1,600 
1,410 
1,270 
630 
490 
350 
260 


110 
110 
110 
120 
120' 
110 
110 


} ■ 

1 


(?) 


110 


Henshel 126— 


Henshel 123 


] - 




















1 1 
1 
1 


1,100 
180 
100 


110 
120 
110 


2 x Henshel 126_ _ 














2 x Henshel 123.. _ 














Heinkel 111.. 


[ i 


1,548 
1,366 


120 
120 


1 





















> All-up weight 50,000 pounds. Tugs at maximum fuel capacity. 



36 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
29 



■ 29. Rail Transport. — a. Engines. — Types: 

(1) Electric. — Weight 102 tons; 4 traction wheels, 2 idlers on each rail; 
6,000 hp; operate to 100 mph; haul 17 coaches. 

(2) General. — Standardization has reduced types from 210 to 13. Some have 
maximum speed of 122 mph, but can only haul up to 250 tons. Some haul a 
maximum weight of 650 tons, at a minimum of 74 mph on the level, or 37 mph on a 
grade of 1 percent. Temporary maximum on the level, 87 mph. By a read- 
justment of carrying springs, can reduce axle pressure from 20 to 18 tons. Di- 



mensions: 

Locomotive: 

Total distance between axles (mm.) 14,525 

Dead weight of locomotive (metric tons) 131.71 

Service weight of locomotive (metric tons) 143.57 

Tender: 

Dead weight of tender (metric tons) 34.3 

Service weight of tender (metric tons) 82.3 

Length of locomotive and tender: 

Over buffers (mm.) 26,520 

6. Cars. — November 6, 1941 estimate of rolling stock: 

Passenger cars 68, 942 

Baggage cars 22, 028 

Freight cars 650, 229 



Ship cargo of 5,000 tons requires 500 cars to move. 

There are estimated about 14,000 high-capacity cars, loading 40 to 50 tons. 
Note. — See chart for availability of locomotives and rolling stock. 



37 



FM-E 101-10 

20 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



c. Facilities. — Electrified track in Germany is all standard, that is, 143.5 cms. 
Railroads constitute 78 percent of the total transport. 

(1) German Railroads. — 



(Greater Germany's economic estimate, November 6, 1941) 





1938 
Old 

Reich 
and 

Aus- 
tria 


1937 
Czecho- 
slovakia 


1938 
Poland 


1940 
France 


1940 
Nether- 
lands 


1939 
Bel- 
gium 


1940 
Nor- 
way 


19S9 
Den- 
mark 


Motive Power 


















Total locomotives — 


23, 996 


4,122 


5,780 


18,500 


1,124 


3,594 


536 


801 






iij fJ/O 
6 


4,091 
7 






901 


3, 593 


481 










54 


784 




1, 130 
784 














24 








1 


55 




Diesel electric 


1,873 






108 




17 


Total motor rail cars 


532 




700 


197 


45 


86 


565 








44 




















Electric cars. 




12 






153 


29 


















Total units of motor power 


25, 869 


4,666 


5,780 


19,200 


1,474 


3,639 


622 


1,366 


Rolling Stock 


















Total freight cars 


629, 632 


94, 271 


169, 533 


450,000 


27,000 


114, 002 


12,380 


11, 629 




Closed freight cars (box) 


223, 795 


133,594 
•60,104 
186 














Open freight cars (flat) 


387, 301 














Tank cars _ _ 














Refrigerator cars..- _ 




■91 














Road service cars 


18, 536 
66, 325 














Passenger cars— _ _ 


10, 278 
3,082 
i 3, 082 


13,020 


31,000 


1,731 


8,299 


2,305 


1,583 


Mail cars . 


Baggage cars _ 


21, 580 












723 


Other vehicles '._ 










285 




















Total rolling stock 


717, 537 


107, 631 


182, 553 


481,000 


28,731 


122, 586 


14,685 


13, 935 





i Indicates state-owned. 



38 



FM-B 101-10 

GERMAN FORCES 29 



(Greater Germany's economic estimate, November 6, 194-1) — Continued 





1939 
Hun- 
gary 


1938 
Ru- 
mania 


1938 
Yugo- 
slavia 


1940 


19S7 
Bul- 
garia 


1938 
Estonia 
Latvia 

Lith- 
uania 


Grand- 
Total 


Motive Power 
Steam . 


1,848 


3, 527 


2, 309 


384 


659 


729 


67, 909 


1,813 








655 


715 
14 














Small,. 














Electric 


33 
2 














Diesel-electric . __ _ . r ... 


1 






4 






Total motor rail cars ... _ . „ 










134 


236 








40 


4,408 


Gasoline motor rail cars 








7 

127 
33 














Diesel motor rail cars _ 














Electric cars. _ 








4 


4 


82 


Total units of motive power 

Rolling stock 

Total freight cars 

Closed freight cars (box) _ 








2,015 
40, 111 


3,763 
55, 471 


2,309 
53, 703 


384 
6, 618 


663 
10, 896 


773 
15, 229 


72,523 
1, 690, 475 


15, 722 
24,389 


23,681 
30,240 
1,550 






4,445 
6,259 
182 
3 
7 

687 
44 
242 






Open freight cars (flat). 
















184 
240 




Eefrigerator cars 










Boad service cars.. _ 












Passenger cars.. 

Mail cars __ 


3,473 
79 
1,100 


3,612 
305 
527 


5,130 


809 


1,615 
45 
109 


149, 867 


Baggage cars 




89 




Passenger and freight vehicles. 






Other vehicles 










78 


283 




Total rolling stock- 












44,763 


59,915 


58,833 


7,516 


11,947 


17,281 


1,868,913 



39 



FM-E 101-10 

29 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



(2) Trackage. — 



Territory 



Old Reich and 

Austria 

Czechoslovakia 

Poland 

France 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Norway 

Denmark 

Rumania 

Yugoslavia. 

Greece. _._ 

Hungary 

Bulgaria. _._ 

Latvia, Estonia, 
and Lithuania. _ 
Russia 



Single or 
first 
track 



111,343.61 
13, 995 



1,657 



3,6 



10,170.9 
6,297 



Other 
main 
track 



1 1,953.0 

5,389 



4,394 



7,677 



1,044.4 



Yard 
track 
and 
sidings 



i 262. 4 
1,282 



2,307 



3,942 



, 513. 3 
873 



Total 
trackage 

{kilo- 
meters) 



64, 772. 64 
13, 774. 2 
20,666 
42,608 
8,358 
4,839 
3, 828 
6, 982. 5 
15, 317 
9,945 
3, 063. 7 
14, 728. 6 
4,268 

7, 577. 6 
85, 498 



8 

Muni 
cipal 
systems 



10, 319 



Electri- 
fied 
(kilo- 
meters) 



3,204.74 
77 
225 
3,371 
1,129 
69.1 
407.6 
52 
None 



430.7 
None 



12 



Narrow 
gage 



1,364.28 
1311.9 
2.143 



None 
None 
682 



743 



None 
500 



Standard 
gage 



58, 743. 71 
1 12, 984. 7 
18, 102 



8,358 
4,8 
3,146 



15,234 



14,728.6 
3,768 



84,500 
(1.524 
meters) 



i Indicates state-owned. 



(3) General facilities of railroad nets. — 

(a) Hungary. — Except in the great central plains of Hungary, the railroads 
naturally follow the river lines and cross the Carpathians at the most favorable 
passes. The most vulnerable feature of the wnole network is that there are only 
five railroad bridges, across the Danube, in the country. Of these, two are at 
Budapest; one at Komarom; one east of Pecs; one from Dunafoldvar to Solt. 

(6) Poland. — There are six main double-track lines connecting the railroad nets 
of Germany and Poland (north to south) : 

Berlin — Stettin — Gdynia — Tczew. 

Berlin — Schneidemuhl — Tczew. 

Berlin — Poznan. 

Breslau — Poznan. 

Dresden — Breslau— Ostrow. 

Breslau — Katowice — Krakow. 

When considering German troop movements across Poland, two main lines 
should be taken into consideration. They are — 

Prague — Bohumin — Krakow. 
Vienna — Bohumin — Krakow. 

(c) From inspection it would appear that the related railroad nets im Germany 
and Poland are more suited to rapid concentration of large numbers of troops to 
the East Prussian area, than to the southeastern frontier of Poland. 



40 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
29-31 



(d) The main connections between Soviet and Polish rail nets are — 

Leningrad — Polock — Molodeczno (single-track) . 
Moscow — Minsk — Baranowicze (double-track) . 
Moscow — Homel — Luniniec (single-track) . 

The German-Polish net is more adequate, strategically, than the Soviet-Polish 
net. 

■ 30. Wateb Transport. — a. Tonnage available. — (1) Total gross tonnage of 
German merchant vessels as of January 1, 1942: 

3,875,414 (does not include 87 tankers of 624,747 gross tons). 

(2) Special invasion-type barges: 
3,000 barges. 

(Note. — These barges are concentrated in the Lowlands and in French ports and each ha3 a capacity of 5 
tanks plus men and equipment. 200 barges will transport one armored division with its first flight of ve- 
hicles. Photo reconnaissance in May 1942 showed only 131 tank landing craft, 52 Siebel ferries, and 660 
invasion barges.) 

(3) Germany is building in Greek ports 300-ton concrete barges which are 
intended to carry 1,000 men each and two 25-ton tanks. Germany probably 
has in this area at the present time about 300 concrete barges, and it has been 
reported that the ultimate goal for the summer of 1942 is 1,000 such barges. 

(4) It has been estimated that 5 tons of cargo space per man is required to 
transport overseas a modern fighting force with equipment and stores. 

6. Invasion craft. — Craft available to the Germans for the invasion of England 
as of December 1941 included the following types: 

(1) Tank landing craft. — The design of these craft is based on that of ordinary 
commercial barges, but with the addition of numerous watertight compartments. 
It is estimated that the time required to build one of these barges is between 6 
and 8 weeks. Between 50 and 60 of these landing craft is the total believed 
available to the Germans in December 1941. 

(2) Invasion barges. — The invasion barge is defined as having speed of 6 to 8 
knots and drawing not over 4 feet of water forward and 6 feet aft. Displacement 
for 250 to 700 tons, averaging 400 tons. The trim could be quickly adjusted by 
the use of a powerful pump or pumps. Most of these barges are self-propelled, 
but a certain lesser number are dumb with bow conversion. The estimated 
number of barges of between 250 and 700 tons and self-propelled with a speed of 
6 knots or over does not exceed 2,000. In addition, there are about 1,000 modern 
barges self-propelled with a displacement between 120 and 200 tons, capable of 
crossing the English Channel. The tank or troop-carrying capacity of this class 
of barge is probably not over one-third that of the 400-ton barge. In the case 
of the 400-ton barge a carrying capacity, after modification allowing for rapid 
unloading, is as given below for definite classes of equipment: 

7 light or 6 medium, or 4 heavy tanks. 

4 lorries or 6 tractors. 

20 antitank or infantry guns. 

10 gun-howitzers, or 4 antiaircraft guns. 

■ 31. Bridges and Bridge Equipment. — a. Bridges. — (1) Bridging columns 
transport and maintain bridging equipment, and the bridges are erected by the 
companies. 

(2) The following bridges can be built by the division engineer battalion, but it 



41 



FM-E 101-10 

31 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMT FORCES 

is to be noted that units of all arms, except artillery, have enough bridging material 
to cross small rivers without engineer help. 



Equipment 



Load capacity 
in tons 



Length in feet 



Type B ponton and trestle: 

Standard assembly, medium 
Standard assembly, heavy... 

Special assembly, light 

Special assembly, medium—. 

Type E: 

Box girder and bridge 

(4-girder construction) 



U8 
i 
8 



252-270 
165-177 
402-432 
234-264 



64 



i Nominal rating. Will probably take about 27. 



(3) All engineer companies carry timber of various sizes to build bridges up to 
8 tons carrying capacity. 

(4) None of the bridges carried in the division bridging column can carry more 
than 22 tons at the outside. For carrying across wet gaps loads heavier than 
can be taken by B equipment, rafts are constructed consisting of K box girder 
equipment supported on double piers made out of B equipment pontons. 

b. Bridge equipment. — (1) Equipment carried by units. — (a) Divisional engineer 
battalions. 

Two 4-ton pneumatic boats. 

3K- and 5-ton wooden ponton and (steel) trestles. 
Nine 18-ton steel pontons and trestles. 
Assault boats. 
Motor boats. 
Outboard motors. 
GHQ engineer battalions. 
9- and 18-ton steel pontons and trestles. 
24-ton Herbert light alloy pontons. 
Boats available. — 



(6) 



(2) 



Type 



Pneumatic boats, large. 

Do 

Pneumatic boats, small 

Do 

Assault boats (if with out- 
board motors 15-20 knots). 
Collapsible canoes. ... 



By whom carried 



Co (Mecz or part Mecz) . 

Bridging Clm 

Co (Mecz or part Mecz) 

Bridging Clm 

Bridging Clm. 

Bridging Clm 



No. 
carried 



18 
(?) 



Dimensions 



Length 
(feet) 



18 

18 
10 
10 
(?) 



Viiith 
(feel) 



Capacity 



2Yi tons (2,240 

lbs. per ton). 
2% tons. 
616 lbs., 3 men. 
616 lbs., 3 men. 
18 men. 



No details available, used for reconnais- 
sance, probably holds 2 men. 



The motorboat carried by the bridging column is used only for assisting ponton bridging operations, 
not for transport of troops. 
Pontons are also propelled by outboard motors. 

Cable ferrying equipment consists of 2 tripods about 10 feet high, a drum of steel wire rope, etc. Tripods 
must be not more than 200 yards apart and easy to erect. 



42 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
31 



(3) Pneumatic boats. — (a) These boats correspond to the folding boat equipment 
in the British Army, and (roughly) to the assault boats of the American Army. 
They are made of rubberized fabric in the form of a ring which is bulkheaded off 
into several air chambers so that the boat cannot easily be sunk. They are in two 
sizes, the larger of which takes about 15 minutes to inflate by hand bellows. 

(6) The larger size is 18 feet long and 6 feet wide and has an available buoyancy 
of about 2}i tons. Rolled and packed for transport the boat occupies a cylindrical 
space 7 feet long by 3 feet in diameter and weighs approximately 350 pounds. 

(c) The smaller boat is 10 feet long and 4 feet wide, has a crew of 2 men, and an 
available buoyancy of about 600 pounds. This boat weighs 115 pounds. 

(d) These boats are light for their load capacity and when inflated can be carried 
easily at the double, 8 men for the large and 2 for the small boat. Although stable 
they are somewhat cumbersome and slow in the water, being particularly difficult 
to control in a wind. Some form of rowlocks or loops is provided to assist in 
rowing or steering the boats when used singly or as rafts. 

(e) Boats are provided with rings for lashing on superstructure for making rafts 
and bridges. Only improvised decking or decking borrowed from other equipment 
is used. 

(4) Motor boats.— These boats are used only for assisting ponton bridging 
operations and not for the transport of troops. Only about six men can be 
carried, but boats are provided with 100-horsepower, 6-cylinder water-cooled 
gasoline engines. The equipment includes a grapple hook, a long length of steel 
wire rope for towing rafts, also a searchlight. The boats are capable of towing a 
triple 18-ton raft at 6 miles an hour. The boats will be invaluable in the con- 
struction of bridges with the Herbert equipment. 

(5) Outboard motors. — There are three types of outboard motors in use. The 
latest of these is a model with a 3-horsepower, 4-cylinder gasoline engine used for 
towing in bridging operations or for ferrying (see also (4) above). 

(6) Ponton trailer. — (a) The 9- and 18-ton bridge equipage is transported on 
4-wheel trailers. The weight of the trailer is about 4,000 pounds, without the 
load. The load is about 6,000 pounds. 

(6) To carry the bridge train's complement of 9- and 18-ton equipage, there are 
four types of trailer. All have the same chassis; they differ only in the arrange- 
ment of pins, grooves, etc. The trailer described above is the "ponton trailer"; 
on it are loaded one ponton and items of superstructure as described (sufficient to 
make one-half of a complete 9-ton raft) . The names of the trailers and the respec- 
tive loads involved are listed in the following table. Composition of the bridge 
train is described later. 



Trailers for 9- and 18-ton ponton equipage 



Name of trailer 



Items of load 



Transom. 



Ponton. 



Hamp. 
Bank. 



1 ponton, 16 chess, 1 curb balk, 4 balk, 1 stiffener, 1 coupler, 2 clamps, 1 an- 
chor, 1 communicating track. 

1 transom, 16 chess, 1 curb balk, i balk, 2 trestle legs with guv Doles, 1 con- 
necting track. 

6 ramp balk, 32 chess, 2 curb balk, 1 connecting track. 

1 seat (or 1 transom), 16 chess, 2 curb balk, 6 balk, 1 stiffening. 1 connecting 
track. 



43 



FM-E 101-10 

31 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

(c) Obviously the light ponton equipage has been designed with a view to those 
divisional loads which weight less than 5 tons. It is essential to get these loads 
across ravines and dry gaps as well as across streams. Wfth that thought in mind, 
the light bridge train is to include relatively many trestles. Thus, the bridge 
train in the divisional battalion is to include — 

40 light pontons. 
6 trestles, complete. 

(d) With these items will be sufficient units of superstructure to permit construc- 
tion of 276 feet of mixed ponton and trestle bridge. Obviously, with the equipage 
of the train, a trestle bridge of 161 feet could be built. 

(7) 3}i- to 6-ton wooden half-pontons. — (a) The pontons are 12 feet long by 5 
feet beam and weigh about 300 pounds. They are gunwale-loaded and open, and 
can be used for the 3^-ton bridge or for the 5-ton bridge. The pontons, being 
open and splayed, can be nested for transport. 

(6) To form the superstructure, roadbearers and chesses are in effect joined 
together and form complete units of roadway about 20 feet long by 2 feet wide. 
Any number of such units can be used side by side, five being used to form a 10- 
foot roadway. 

(8) 9- to 18-ton pontons and trestles. — (a) The ponton is similar to our own. 
The inner measurements are 24 feet 6 inches by 5 feet beam by 3 feet 3 inches, and 
the weight is about 1,600 pounds. In addition to a crew of four it has a carrying 
capacity of 15 men with field equipment of 10,000 pounds with 9-inch freeboard. 
Being undecked it is more suitable for ferrying than the British pontons, but has 
the disadvantage of a definite minimum of freeboard which must be strictly ob- 
served. When used in bridge or raft the pontons are gunwale-loaded. 

(6) The superstructure consists of steel I-beam balks, 7 inches by 3 inches by 
21 feet, weighing 350 pounds, and chesses 10 inches by 2 inches by 12 feet 3 inches, 
weighing 50 pounds. The load is also shared by heavy curb rails which are racked 
down at two places to intermediate transoms passing under the balks. Eight 
balks are used for the medium bridge and 14 for the heavy bridge. The equipment 
includes steel trestles; piers consist of single trestles for either the medium or heavy 
bridge, while floating piers are of one or two pontons, respectively. 

(9) 24-ton Herbert ponton bridge and trestles. — (a) The pontons are upward of 
60 feet in length and divided laterally into eight or nine sections. They are of 
steel or light alloy, gunwale-loaded and are used to a minimum freeboard of 12 
inches; the bow is provided with a raised bulwark to assist in the rough water 
experienced on large rivers. The ponton sections are decked and provided with 
hatches, and it is possible for the maintenance crew to rest and sleep inside. 
The ponton weighs approximately 10 tons and displacement with the freeboard 
mentioned is nearly 60 tons. 

(6) The equipment also includes trestle piers, either of steel or pile timber 
construction. The latter are used for shore bays at river crossings or shallow 
dry gaps, while the steel trestles built up of standard parts can be constructed to 
a height of over 60 feet above foundation level and still carry the full load for 
which the bridge is designed. 

(c) The main girders carrying the roadway are composed of sections in the 
form of pyramids 6 feet 6 inches high with bases 8 feet 3 inches long by 4 feet 
6 inches wide. Transoms are hung in special stirrups from the apex of each 
pyramid and the transoms in turn carry the balk. A standard bay is 82 feet 
6 inches, that is, ten pyramid sections, pin-connected. 



44 



FM-E 101-10 

GERMAN FORCES 31 

(d) From the information available it is calculated that in standard bays the 
bridge would take loads of 18 tons; that is, medium tanks and artillery. 
However, with closer spacing of pontons thus reducing the length of a bay, the 
load capacity could probably be increased to take a 35-ton tank. 

(e) The pontons are too large to be used conveniently on any but the largest 
rivers, and the construction and launching takes too long to be considered in 
any way as an assault operation. The Herbert equipment may therefore be 
classified as a semipermanent bridge, and its use is probably confined to back areas 

(10) Heavy tank rafts. — (a) If the Herbert bridge is excluded, it will be noted 
that none of the bridges mentioned above are capable of taking 35-ton tanks, a 
few of which are known to have been used on the Western Front. 

(6) There is evidence that a special heavy raft was used for these tanks, and 
was probably designed for the purpose. This consisted of a small box girder 
section (similar to the K-Bruckengerat described in (11) (a) below) 60 feet long 
and supported at each end by a pair of double ponton piers. The exact load 
capacity of this raft is not known, but the available buoyancy of the complete raft 
as described would be over 45 tons, and the strength of the superstructure is, 
without doubt, proportionate. Loading of raft is by means of special 8-foot shore 
bays made of lattice girders. 

(11) Fixed bridges. — (a) Small box girder bridge (K-Briickengerdt). — This is 
almost a copy of our standard small box girder bridge. The principal members 
are similar, and the launching nose used is identical. The tracked load-carrying 
capacities and corresponding spans are probably equal to or greater than the 
following : 

Tons 

4-girder, 48-foot span 25 

4-girder, 64-foot spanl ^ 
2-girder, 32-foot span I 

2-girder, 64-foot span 10 

(6) Girder bridge. — There is also a larger through-type sectional girder bridge 
capable of spanning gaps of at least 140 feet and probably capable of taking heavy 
loads. No definite details are available. 

c. Data on movements by armored formations. — (1) The average rates of advance 
along roads by troops in German armored formations in the campaign in the west, 
1940, are given in a captured official document as follows. (The advance is 
assumed not to be held up, and the roads average.) 





Wheeled vehicles 


Tracked vehicles 




Length of 


Time 


Length of 


Time 




march 


taken 


march 


taken 




Km. (Mi.) 


Hrs. 


Km. (Mi.) 


Hrs. 




50 (31)4) 


2 


30 (18H) 


W 


By day 


100 (62H) 


m 


60 (37) 


4 




200 (125) 


10 


100 (62H) 


6M 


By night.-. 


50 (3194) 


3H 


30 (18H) 


3 




100 (62H) 


6H 


60 (37) 


6 



479414°— 42- 



45 



FM-E 101-10 

32 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 







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46 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
32 




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47 



FM-E 101-10 

32-33 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

(2) A captured document, of recent date, gives the average length of a complete 
armored division on the march, including services, as follows. The division is 
marching in five groups, with 20 minutes interval between groups. 
At the halt, or on the move at 10 kilometers per hour 



(6%mph) 120 km. (75 mi.) 

or 12 hrs. 

On the move at 25 kilometers per hour (15K mph) 170 km. (106H mi.) 

or 7 hrs. 



If the fighting troops alone are considered (without reconnaissance unit or 
attached troops, and without any tactical intervals), and are marching in four 
groups, with 20 minutes interval between groups, the above figures become — - 
90 kilometers (57% mi.) or 9 hours. 
150 kilometers (93% mi.) or 6 hours. 
In both cases, 10 percent of all vehicles are deducted for traffic regulation duties. 
For comparison, the length of a motorized division on the march is 75 percent 
of the above. 

In compiling the above figures, the following intervals were reckoned: 



Between vehicles — yards 

At the halt, or on the move at 10 kilometers per hour 20 

On the move at 25 kilometers per hour 25 

Between units 50 

Between formations 250 

(3) A further document captured from another armored division states, prob- 
ably correctly, that the following intervals are normal: 

Yards 

Between vehicles on the move 25 

Between units 100 

Between formations and march groups 1,000 (2K min.) 



At speeds above 25 kilometers per hour, the distance between vehicles must be 
increased to as many yards as the speed is kilometers per hour. This has the 
effect of increasing the marching length by about 15 percent for every increase of 
5 kilometers per hour in speed, so that the net gain in speed of advance is com- 
paratively small. 

■ 33. By Rail. — a. Train make-up. — Procedure is the same as ours. They use 
make-up yards, and send the trains to the departure yards as they are needed. 
The trains are all standard: infantry, artillery, and motorized. The trains never 
exceed 100 axles, or 50 cars. In addition there are interspersed special cars for 
antiaircraft defense. Each unit carries its equipment along with it. 

b. Speed. — The average speed of a train, either troop, equipment, ox supply, is 
35 kilonfeters per hour. 



48 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
33-34 



c. Number of trains to move units: Trains 

Infantry regiment 8 

Artillery regiment 11 

Pioneer battalion 5 

Supply services 7 

Mountain division 80 

Infantry division without motorized units 42 

Infantry division complete 66 

(24 trains used to carry the motorized equipment.) 

H 34. By Aib. — a. The Germans are estimated to have approximately 1,700 
transport aircraft, of which 1,500 are Junkers JU 52's. The remaining 200 are 
chiefly Junkers JU 90, the Focke-Wulf FW 200, and the Blohm and Vass BV 222 
flying boat. The table given in paragraph 28 includes all types generally recog- 
nized as transports, with corresponding ranges and loads. 

6. The Junkers JU 52 is the standard troop transport for the German Air 
Force. These aircraft have been organized into Kampfgeschwader (wing) 
z. b. V. (zur besonderer Verwendung — special duty). Each Geschwader has four 
Gruppen (groups) . Each Gruppe is made up of four Staffeln (squadron) . There 
are 12 aircraft in each Staffeln. 

c. Each Geschwader (wing) thus has a normal complement of about 200 aircraft 
and is capable of carrying (1) an entire parachute regiment, plus equipment; or 
(2) 3,000 ordinary troops. The Germans have at least three and probably four 
Kampfgeschwader z. b. V. (special duty), plus several additional Gruppen for 
transport. 

Geschwader 

! 

Gruppe Gruppe Gruppe Gruppe 

| 48 aircraft 

Staflel Staflel Staffel Staffel 

12 aircraft 12 aircraft 12 aircraft 12 aircraft 

d. The following aircraft are required to transport the following units in one trip: 

Parachute division @ 7,000 men (3 para- 
chute rifle regiments plus divisional 

troops) 4 Geschwader @ 800 aircraft. 

Parachute rifle regiment @ 1,700 men 1 Geschwader @ 200 aircraft. 

Parachute rifle battalion @ 480 men 1 Gruppe @ 50 aircraft. 

Parachute company @ 120 men (rifle or 

heavy) 1 Staffel @ 12 aircraft. 

Assault regiment 1 Geschwader and gliders. 

Air-landing division 900-1,000 aircraft. 



49 



FM-E 101-10 

35 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



CHAPTER 3 
SUPPLY 

Paragraphs 

Section I. General organization 35-36 

II. Classes of supply .. _ _._ 37 

III. Supply columns and trains 38 39 

IV. Service units (army, corps, and division) 40-43 

V. Eations 44 

VI. Supply diagrams _._ 45-49 

VII. Ammunition data _ _ 60-52 

Section I 

GENERAL ORGANIZATION 

■ 35. Organization op Supply Service. — 

oic 

HITLER 



CHIEF 
ARMED FORCES 



AIR NAVY ARMY GHQ 

gen! QM 



Army Group Hq 
I-b-(G-4) 



Army Hq- 
(Ober Qm)- 



Corps Hq 
(Qm-(G^)) 



-CG 



1 of I 



Chief of Transportation 
(Charge of all railway and 
water transportation) 



Chiefs of I I 

Supply Supply Replacements 
Services Depots 
from the 
Army 



■ Transportation Officer • 



Div. Hq 
I-b— (G-4) 



50 



GERMAN" FORCES 



PM-E 101-10 
36 



o 




51 



FM-E 101-10 

37-39 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



Section II 

CLASSES OF SUPPLY 

■ 37. General Classes of Supply. — 
Rations — Class I 
Ammunition — 
All other— 



Section III 
SUPPLY COLUMNS AND TRAINS 
■ 38. Supply Columns and Trains. — 



Type Capacity (tons) day (miles) 

Large motortruck column 60 125 

Small motortruck column 30 125 

Animal-drawn column 30 12.5-20 

Mountain animal-drawn column 15 12.5—15 

Pack train 5 12-15 

■ 39. Basic Use.— 



GHQ Mtr Trk Clms, large__ Transportation reserve for GHQ to use for 

Army sup, attached as needed to armies, 
corps, and divs. 

Army Trk Clms Maintain rolling reserves and assist in stock- 

ing parks and depots. 

Corps Trk Clms, small Augment Divs Clms and Sup Corps troops. 

Div Trk Clms, small, Wag- 
on Clms and Pack Tns Carry portion of first refill of Div Am. Haul 

from Div Rhd and Army (depots, trans- 
loading points) to DPs. 2 Trk Clms as- 
signed to Arty Regt during combat as 
Arty Am Tn. 

Lt Clms and Tns Connect troops and Div Sup establishments, 

controlled (except combat Tns) by higher 
Hqs. 

Note. — All trains organized as units of 16-, 30-, or 60-ton capacity. All supplies for issue and transporta- 
tion made in 30-ton lots. 



52 



FM-E 101-10 

GERMAN FORCES 40 



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53 



FM-E 101-10 

41-43 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 41. Army Supply. — Army carries major load of supply and evacuation in 
theater of operations. Establishes depots as far forward as possible. Army 
G-4 functions as our G— 1 and G-4 combined. Deals directly witli GHQ, G-4 or 
CG, Z of I on supply, and with representative of Chief of Transportation at Army 
headquarters. Army Base area receives supplies from Z of I by train: depots to 
forwarding station to Army. Includes administrative offices such as commissary 
or ammunition which fill requisitions and load trains from depots assigned. 
Practice is to eliminate intermediate depots as much as possible, but keep trains 
loaded in base area and ship as needed. Ammunition depots usually 20 to 40 
miles in rear of front. 3,000 to 6,000 tons stock maintained. Commissary 
depot usually carries 8-day supply. 



42. Coeps Rear Services. — 



Corps Supply Train 



Military Police 
Company 



Postal Service 

. Field PO 



L: 



CO and Staff 



Corps Truck Train 



Road Constriction Bn 



-2 Mtr Trk Clros 
(total capacity 60 tons) 

-1 Gas and Oil Clm— large 
(capacity 13,Q00 gals.) 



3 Rd Cons Cos 
— Mtr Clm — large 



— Mtr Transport Repair Plat 

Strength: 

800 men (approx.). 

Supervises and regulates supply of divisions, corps troops, and attached 
troops. 

Prorates supplies and establishes priorities. 
Takes direct action only in an emergency. 

43. Division Supply (G-4). — 



STRENGTH: 

25 Officers. 
12 Civilian 

Officials. 
824 EM. 

TRANSPORT: 

26 Motorcycles 
21 Cars. 

176 Trucks. 



-Staff Supply Section- 



i— Supply 

I — Ammunition 



■Division Supply Company 
-8 Division Light Columns 
•Light Fuel Column 
-Heavy Fuel Column 
— Motor Repair Shop 
■Staff Ration Section 
— Slaughter Platoon 
■Bakery Company 



54 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
43-44 



Combat Train. — Field kitchen and combat wagon per unit. 
Ration Train. — Ration wagon and forage wagon per unit. 

Regfc and Bn Hqs have one truck added. Hauls from Div to Bn. 
Baggage Train. — One truck per unit. 
Infantry Regt has a horse-drawn ammunition column. 



Section V 
RATIONS 

■ 44. Class I Supply. — 
a. Carried in the division. — 

Field ration Iron ration 

With each man — 1 (reduced) 

On each combat vehicle — 1 

In the field kitchen 1 1 

In the unit ration train , 2 — 

In the division train 1 — 

Total 4 3 

Total weight of ration carried in the division: 94.4 tons (approx.). 

6. Weight of 1 day's ration (field) . — 

Per man Per division Per 300,000 men 

(lb.) (tons) (tons) 

Total weight (approx.) 2. 92 23. 6 420 

c. System of distribution. — Division hauls from Army distributing point. 

Battalion and regiment haul from division distributing point. Company hauls 
from battalion distributing point. (If units are motorized, unit ration trucks 
draw from the division.) 



55 



FM-E 101-10 

45 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




56 



GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
46 




57 



FM-E 101-10 

47 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

48 




59 



FM-E 101-10 

49 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




GERMAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
50-51 



Section VII 

AMMUNITION DATA 

■ 50. Divisional Ammunition Quotas. — 

a. Combat allowance — that part carried by the men, combat vehicles or cais- 
sons. 

6. Local reserves — that part carried by the unit light columns. 

c. Division reserves — that part carried in the division columns. 

d. Two ammunition quotas (units of fire) for all weapons of the division are 
carried in the division. 

e. Ammunition quota for all weapons in an army is held on army columns or 
trains. 



■ 51. Units op Fire (rounds). — 



1 

Weapon 


I 

Infan- 
try units 
(includ- 
ing 
MGs 
and 
morts) 


S 

Cavalry 
units 


4 

Artil- 
lery 
units 


6 

Tank 
units 


6 

Engi- 
neers 


7 

Air- 
planes 


8 

Ar- 
mored 
cars 


g 

Service 
units 


10 
Notes 


7.9-mm rifle or car- 
bine 


90 
2,500 
4,500 
120 
30 
180 


90 
2,500 


20 
1,000 




45 
1,000 






20 
1,000 




7.9-mm LMQ 




2,500 


2,500 


7.9-mm HvMG 


4,500 


50-mm Morts 














81-mm Morts.. _ 
















Field gun. 
















AA (88 or 76-mm) 




300 
1,500 












A A (37-mm).. 
















76-mm Inf How 


200 
125 














150-mm Inf How 

105-mm gun. _ 


















125 
125 
75 
50 












150-mm How 
















150-mm gun 
















210-mm How 






















































































Hand grenades 


40 
40 








40 
40 








Rifle grenades 





























479414°— 42 5 



61 



FM-E 101-10 

52 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



52. Scale of Issue of Ammunition. 



Weapon 



On the man or with the gun 



Co & Bn Res 



Rifle. 



Cavalry carbine. 
Machine pistol .. 
LMO 



HvMG 

Revolver _.. 

Grenade . 

81-mm mortar 

60-mm mortar 

37-mm AT gun in AT Bn. 

20-mm HvMG 

37-mm AA gun. 

88-mm A A gun 

106-mm How. 

105-mm gun _ 

150-mm How 



90 rds per man, Rifle Cos 

45 rds per man, all other Cos 

75 rds per man 

192 rds per gun _ 

3,100 rpg divided between gun team and Co and 

Bn Res. 1,000 rpg in AT Co. 
5,250 rpg divided between Co limbers and Bn Res. 
32 rpg.. 



48 rpg 

20 rpg.. 

330 rpg 

900 rpg 

600 rpg. 

192 rpg 

102 rpg in Btry and Bn Clm. 
78 rpg in Btry and Bn Clm... 
60 rpg in Btry and Bn Clm.. 



40 rds per man. 



25 rpg. 

204 rpg. 
1:33 rpg. 

148 rpg in Div Clm. 
72 rpg in Div Clm. 
90 rpg in Div Clm. 



62 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 



PART TWO — JAPANESE FORCES 
CHAPTER 1 
ORGANIZATION 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Governmental and geographic organization ___ 53-54 

II. Type army organization ___ 55 

III. Division organizations 56-fil 

IV. Air Force and miscellaneous combat units _ _ 62-67 

V. Supply units _. 68-69 

VI. Characteristics of materiel _ 70-74 

Section I 

GOVERNMENTAL AND GEOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION 



63 



FM- 



:-e 101-10 

53 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
54 




FM-E 101-10 

55 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



Section II 



TYPE ARMY ORGANIZATION 



55. Type Akmt Obganization. — The largest peacetime organization in the 
Japanese army was a division. Type army assignment is believed to 
be as follows: 



ARMY HEADQUARTERS 



INFANTRY TANKS CAVALRY 
5 Inf Divs 1 Regt 1 Brig reinf by Bn Mtz Inf 

(1 with pack (3-4 Bns) Bn of Horse Arty 
transport) Hv MG Tr 

Mtd Engrs Co 
Armd-C Det 



AVIATION 
Regt Bomb Avn 
Regt Pur Avn 
Regt Obn Avn 
Bin Regt 

Air Service Sig Det 



SIGNAL SERVICE 
Tg Regt 
Wireless Regt 
Sit Det 



STRENGTH: 

110,000-135,000 Officers and men. 
Note.— There is no Corps organization. 



ARTILLERY 
Regt Mtn Arty 
Brig Hv FA 
Arty Information Det 
2 Rcgts AA Arty 



ENGINEERS 
Regt Engrs 
10 Bridge Cos 



LINE OF COMMUNICATION SERVICE 
10 Deps 

15 Transport Dets of 10 Wag Cos each 
1 Mtr Transport Det of 12 Cos 
4 Res Field Hosps 

4 Evac Hosps 
1 LC Hosp 

1 Sick Horse Dep 
1 Sn Det 

5 Bns of 2d Res Inf 
1 Tr of 2d Res Cav 

1 Btry of 2d Res FA 
1 Ry Regt 
1 L Ry Regt 
20 Labor Cos 



66 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
56-57 



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67 



FM-E 101-10 

58 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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68 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
59 



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69 



FM-E 101-10 

59 STAFF OFFICERS' 



FIELD 



MANUAL, 



ENEMY FORCES 



This is believed standard Japa- 
nese division organization, 
toward which they are work- 

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i 





JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
60-63 



■ 60. Infantry Division Pack. — 

Differs from actual infantry division in that divisional artillery consists of 
3 battalions of pack 75-mm howitzers. Infantry regimental mountain 
gun companies pack their ammunition. 

All trains throughout the division are pack. 

No tank company. 

No light machine guns in the artillery. 

Infantry has 48 heavy machine guns as against 52 in regular infantry. 
Strength and armament details unknown. 

■ 61. Reinforced Infantry Brigade.— 

Such units are known to exist. Their strength and composition are not 
known. They are believed to be more or less special Task Force organ- 
izations. 

Section IV 

AIR FORCE AND MISCELLANEOUS COMBAT UNITS 

■ 62. Army Aviation. — a. GHQ Air Force is composed basically of wings. Air 
divisions exist as component parts of the GHQ Air Force. These do not replace 
the wings, but are administrative and tactical units for grouping regiments geo- 
graphically and on basis of similarity of mission. 

b. Air regiments are composed of squadrons. This seems to be an administra- 
tive measure, as assignments range from one or two to nine squadrons per regiment. 

c. The squadron is the basic Japanese air unit. Composed of three flights, 
there are 13 to 16 pilots, including enlisted men, and nine or ten airplanes per 
squadron. Squadrons usually have more enlisted men pilots than officer pilots. 

■ 63. Nondivisional Cavalry. — 

INDEPENDENT BRIGADE 

! 

Hq Btry FA Armd-C Eugr Det Cav Regt Cav Regt 
(Horse or pack) Tr | | 

! 

I l I J I 1 

Hq Tr Tr Tr Tr MO Tr 

STRENGTH: 

788 and EM. 

884 Horses. 
ARMAMENT: 

680 Carbines. 

6 LMGs. 

8 HvMGs. 



71 



FM-E 101-10 

64-66 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 
■ 64. 75-mm Field Artillery Regiment, Pack Division. — 

l i i i i i 

Headquar- Headquar- Battalion Battalion Battalion Combat 
tars ters Battery | I I Train 



I I I I I 

Bn Hq Btry Btry Btry Btry Tns 



I I 



I I I 

Hq Plat Plat 

I I 



I 



I I 
See Sec 
(76-mm how each) 

Strength: 

Unknown. 
Armament: 

Unknown. 

Note. — Independent regiment, pack artillery, is organized as above but with 
only two battalions. All transport is pack. 

■ 65. Regiment, 155-mm Howitzers, Horse-Drawn. — 



Regimental Headquarters Battalion Battalion Train 
Battery j | 

! 

BnHqBtry Btry Btry Btry Tns 



How' Plat How Plat Am Plat Tn 



1 I ' 

Sec dec 

STRENGTH: 

Unknown. 
ARMAMENT: 

Unknown. 

I 66. Regiment, 105-mm Guns, Tractor-Drawn. — 

Regimental Headquarters Battalion Battalion Train 
Battery | I (trucks) 



Bn Hq Btry Br.ry Btry Tns 



Hq plat plat Am' Plat Tn 



Sec Sec 



STRENGTH: 
Unknown. 

ARMAMENT: 
Unknown. 



72 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

67-68 



■ 67. Independent Antitank Company. — 



Headquarters Platoon Platoon Platoon Platoon 



Sec See 
in'co 

9 Gunners 

2 Drivers 

1 Trk. 1^-ton 

1 37-mm AT gun. 

STRENGTH: 

150 (approx.). 
ARMAMENT: 

8 37-mm AT guns. 

Note. — These units are believed to exist as special troops with assignments to 
organizations as needed. 

Section V 
SUPPLY UNITS 



■ 68. Japanese Transport. — 



Unit 





EM 


Remarks 


Div Transport Regt, Inf _ 

Transport Regt, proposed Inf 
Div. 

Transport Regt, Pack Div 


24 


732 


Hq, 3 Trk and 3 Wag Cos. Four-wheeled Wags, carts, and 

Mtrs. Believed Trks will replace Wags when they are 

available and roads permit. 
Hq and 3 Mtr Cos. Each Mtr Co to include 3 autos, 8 

Mtrcls, and 64 Trks. 
Same as normal Inf Div except all Cos consist of 3 Plats of 

3 Sees of 5 Sqds of 10 pack horses each— tot^al, 450 pack 

horses. 



Note. — These units carry rolling reserve of the division. | 



73 



FM-E 101-10 

69 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

■ 69. Transport Regiment for Triangular Division (About 18,000 
Strength). — a. It is believed that at present Japanese transport is only partially 
motorized. For the purposes of this study it has been arbitrarily decided to show 
the ammunition columns as motorized and the ration columns as horse-drawn. 
b. Transport regiment, having total strength of 1,804, is composed of — 
(1) Motorized ammunition battalion with strength of 1,061; 250 2-ton trucks 
having a capacity of 500 tons, five 500-gallon gasoline tank trucks; 20 automobiles 
and 75 motorcycles. 

. Bn , 



Trk Co 



Trk Co 



Trk Co 



Trk Co 



Trk Co 



Serv Co 



Sup Plat 



Trk Plat 
(5 per Co) 



1 Officer 10 Men 
25 Foremen 5 600-gal. 
100 Mechanics tank Trks 



1 Officer 

3 MtrdJ t 80 mUes daily task 

(2) Draft battalion, horse-drawn, with strength of 743; with 600 two- wheeled 
carts of 500 pounds capacity each, and 650 horses. 



Bn 



Draft Co 
(6 per Bn) 



Hq Sec 



2 Officers 
120 Men 

100 2-wheeled carts 
100 horses 



3 Veterinary Officers 
3 Veterinary NCO's 
3 Privates 
CO Horses 



c. The organization carries — 

(1) One day of fire for the division for all weapons including small arms. (This 
does not include the day of fire carried by the firing units.) Estimated weight 
500 tons. 

(2) Two days' rations for the personnel of the division and 2 days' forage for 
the 4,109 horses of the division. (This does not include the ration carried on the 
person.) Estimated rations for men, 50 tons for 2 days, include rice, barley, dried 
fish or tinned meat, salt and shoyu, plus % pound of vegetables or eggs when 
available. Weight 2.75 pounds per man per day. Forage is estimated at .013 
tons per horse per day or approximately 100 tons for the 4,109 horses of the 
division. 



74 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
70 



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75 



EM— E 101-10 

71-72 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



IS 

Rate of march 


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Unit 
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76 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
72 



Experiment as am- 
phibian. 

120 rds. 47-mm; 
1,350 rds. MQ. 

250 rds. 37-mm; 

2,500 rds. MG. 
200 rds. 37-mm; 

4,000 rds. MG. 
200 rds. 37-mm 

5,000 rds. MG. 
6,000 rds. MG; 120 

rds. 37-mm; 100 

rds. Mort. 
Possible flame 

thrower. 
250 rds. 37-mm; 

2,500 rds. MG. 
500 rds. HE; 5,000 

rds. MG. 

2,000 rds. MG; 120 
rds. 37-mm. 


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FM-E 101-10 

73 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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79 



FM-E 101-10 

75-77 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



CHAPTER 2 

MOVEMENTS Paragraphs 

Sectiok I. Facilities ___ 75-82 

II. Troop movements _ 83-85 

Section I 
FACILITIES 

H 75. General. — a. In general, Japanese operations are from close bases. That 
fact permits deck loading and the use of a variety of small ships which could not 
be employed over a longer supply line. Food supplies need not be carried for 
long periods. In addition, the Japanese soldier requires very little ship space 
per man and, having been trained to live off the country and exploit its resources, 
he travels very lightly. 

6. Japan's army is not as completely motorized as they desire, but, because of 
the types of country in which it has been operating, this has not proved a handicap. 
Coolie labor has been drafted for transport, and everywhere the transport system 
has been quickly organized around local available transport facilities by com- 
mandeering private cars, trucks, horses, wagons, bicycles, and boats. The great 
flexibility of the Japanese type of organization has made it possible for the Japa- 
nese army to overcome any difficulties which might have been expected to arise 
because of an apparent shortage of transport facilities. 

■ 76. Animal-Drawn Transportation. — The Japanese do not have motorized 
equipment available in sufficient quantity, and hence the wagon or two-wheeled 
cart plays a very important role in army transportation. No exact figures are 
available on the number of these carts which are being used, but a rough estimate, 
based on the computation of 600 two-wheeled carts for each transport regiment 
for each of the 82 divisions, and 400 carts for some 40 or more independent 
brigades and regiments, would indicate more than 65,000 such vehicles in use. 
These carts can be produced very quickly and inexpensively, and it is safe to say 
that the army has or can have as many carts as it needs. 

■ 77. Motor Transport. — a. Trucks. — The Japanese Army is well supplied 
with light motor trucks (1% to 3 tons capacity). The Nissan is a modified cab- 
over-engine design at 2-ton capacity. The Toyota is a faithful copy of the 1939 
Chevrolet truck. Several types of heavy trucks, some powered with Diesel and 
some with gasoline engines, have been manufactured in Japan for several years 
past, but production has always been small. The standard prime mover of the 
Japanese Army is a six-wheeled vehicle of 3 to 4 tons capacity, powered with a 
6-cylinder engine of approximately 90 horsepower. Two rear axles are used and 
the four rear wheels drive. The front end is of conventional de:sign. It has an 
unusually high ground clearance. This standard prime mover is the chassis of 
the Japanese armored car. All privately owned commercial vehicles in Japan 
proper have been converted to charcoal burners, and it is possible that many of the 
Japanese army trucks used in Japan proper may have been converted to use this 
type of fuel. 

6. Motor cars. — Only two types of passenger vehicles are manufactured in 
Japan at present. The Nissan, the standard seven-passenger automobile of the 
Japanese Army, is an adaptation of the 1935, six-cylinder Graham Paige. The 
Toyota Company began to manufacture in 1940 an European-type passenger 
car smaller than the Ford, with a wheel base of only 100 inches and a small six- 
cylinder engine. A large number of Fords and Chevrolets are available and this 
number has been materially increased by the acquisition of Ford factories and 
assembly plants in occupied territory. 

80 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101- 

78 



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81 



FM-E 101-10 

79 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

■ 79. Rail Transport. — a. Engines. — (1) According to the last figures published 
(1937, for the year 1935-36) there were 4,235 locomotives (200 electric) owned by 
the Government. The average locomotive weighs 85 tons, and the average 
tractive effort is approximately 40 percent less than locomotives in the U. S. 
The principal classes of engines are the 4-6-2 passenger engine with double-truck 
tender, total weight 115 tons, and the 2-8-2 freight engine with double-truck 
tender, total weight 124 tons. Maximum axle weight is 15 tons. 
(2) There were 808 engines owned by private companies. 

b. Cars. — (1) Passenger. — In 1935 there were — 

10,813 passenger cars with a total seating capacity of 689,201. Of these — 
9,219 had a seating capacity of 529,139. 
1,403 had a seating capacity of 142,613. 
191 rail cars (electric cars) — seating capacity 17,449. 
Ninety-nine percent of the cars are third class, and each has a seating 

capacity of 64 passengers. 
The speed is never over 50 mph. According to the Tokyo Year Book of 
1934, the highest speed of passenger trains has been increased to 64 
mph for the 3' 6" gage. 
(2) Freight. — In 1937 there were (Government-owned) — ■ 
67,485 with a loading capacity of 892,442 metric tons: 
36,224 box cars — loading capacity 456,446. 
220 tank cars — loading capacity 2,596. 
30,294 gondola-type — loading capacity 433,400. 
In addition, private companies owned 10,989 freight cars. 

c. Mileage. — (1) There are in Japan — 

12,731 miles of railroads, operated by the state; 4,219 miles of railroads, 
operated by private companies; 1,410 miles of railroads, interurban and 
city trains. 

(2) Of this total mileage only 1,347 miles are more than single track. Very 
little multiple track exists. Up to 1940, 244 route miles were electrified. Direct 
current is used, distributed by overhead trolley lines at 1,200 or 1,500 volts. The 
three large power stations are at Kawasaki, Akabane, and on the Shinaogawa River. 

(3) No coal exists on the main island, the supply coming from Hokkaido and 
Kyushu and also from Chosen. 

(4) Tokyo is the main traffic junction and from it there radiate more multiple- 
track railroads than from any other one point. Seventy-five percent of the 
electric mileage is around Tokyo. 

(5) Recently the Shimonoseki Tunnel has been opened, so that there is a con- 
tinuous railway service from Tokyo through Yokohama, westward along the 
coast through Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, and along the inland sea to Shimonoseki. 
This is the only line where sharp grades are not encountered. The distance 
covered is 1,097 kilometers (686 miles). The line between Tokyo and Kobe 
is particularly vulnerable, since it crosses numerous rivers where they are widest 
just before they enter the sea, requiring a large number of long bridges. The 
same is true between Kobe and Shimonoseki but this particular section of the line 
is difficult to reach, since it is protected by the screen of islands that surround the 
inland sea. 

(6) The most important lines are on the main island of Honshu. Of secondary 
importance is the southwestern island of Kyushu with the two important ports of 
Nagasaki and Moji. Of lesser importance are the northwestern island of Hok- 



82 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

79 



kaido and the island of Shikoku. South Sakhalin or Karafuto has a small 
network. The Honshu trunk line is double-tracked throughout. There are four 
tracks : 

Tokyo- Yokohama (29 kilometers — 18 miles). 
Osaka-Kobe (128 kilometers — 80 miles). 
Kyoto- Akashi (95 kilometers — 60 miles). 



d. Leading local railways in Japan (last known figures) .- 



Title 



Open miles- 
Length of 
lines 



Motive power 



Bautan Railway 

Chichibu Railway 

Chugoku Railway. _ 

Eehigo Railway 

Fuji Minoba Railway 

Geibi Railway 

Ibigawa Electric Railway 
Iwate Keiben Railway 

Iyo Railway . 

Joso Railway 

Kokura Railway 

Musashimo Railway . 

Nagoya Railway 

Nankai Railway 

Omi Railway 

Shimabara Railway 

Tobu Railway - 

Tomakomai Railway 

Tsukuba Railway 



45. 

41. 

49. 

66. 

20. 

56. 

35. 

40. 

[35 

I 3. 

31. 

24. 

27. 

(42. 

146 

(42. 

135. 

27. 

26. 
[143. 
I 2. 

25. 

24. 



Electric _ 

Electric and steam. 

Steam 

do 

do 

do 

Steam and electric. 

Steam 

do 

Electric 

Steam 

do 



do... 

do- 
Electric. 
Steam... 
Electric- 
Steam... 

do... 

do- 



Hand.. 
Steam.. 
do.. 



e. Formosa. — Railroads in Formosa have — 
200 locomotives. 
600 passenger cars. 

8,000 freight cars, mostly open, 10-20 ton capacity. 
The Government railways operate 881 kilometers (550 miles) of 3'6"-gage 
railroad. Private companies operate 1,247 kilometers (775 miles) of 2'6"- 
gage railroad and narrower. The capacity of all double-track sections may be 
estimated at 48 pairs of trains. Crossing loops are short, and therefore trains of 
30 cars and 750 tons are the maximum accommodated. The principal railway 
line runs through the western coastal area of the island, linking Kielung with 
Taihoku and Takao. 
/. Manchuria. — (1) Engines. — 
South Manchurian Railways: 

500 locomotives, passenger and freight. 
100 switching engines. 
12 Diesel 4-car units. 
State Railways: 

1,250 locomotives. 



83 



FM-E 101-10 

79 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



(2) Passenger cars: 

850 — South Manchurian. 
2,000— State Railways. 

(3) Freight cars: 

9,000 — South Manchurian. 
17,000— -State Railways. 

(4) The railway system has developed around the South Manchurian Railway 
Company, the main line being Dairen-Hsingking. The management of the 
company is in daily contact with the Kwangtung Army, with headquarters at 
Hsingking and Dairen. The main line is double-tracked. Other railways are 
State-owned and operated by the South Manchurian. The most important of 
these is the former Chinese Eastern Railway, cross-country from Manchuli to 
Suifenho (Pogranichnaya) . The southern main line branches off the former at 
Harbin whence it runs to Hsingking and connects with the South Manchurian. 

(5) The Chinese Eastern Railway was formerly part of the Trans-Siberian 
Railway. It has been duplicated by a northerly route, entirely in Siberian terri- 
tory at a short distance from the Manchurian border. The Chinese Eastern was 
taken over by the Manchukuo State Railways in 1935 and incorporated into their 
own system. The gage was converted from the Russian 5-foot gage to standard. 
A connection with the Siberian railways system exists now only at Manchuli, 
where a break in the gage occurs. 

(6) Other important trunk lines are Peking-Mukden, entering Manchuria 
from China at the point where the Chinese Wall reaches the sea; and the Antung- 
Mukden, a section in the overland route from Japan through Korea. 

g. Korea. — (1) Rolling stock (1937) — F m.ow m^g'age 

Locomotives 315 31 

Passenger cars 754 75 

Freight cars 3, 444 319 

A 1941 report gives — 
400 locomotives. 
900 coaches. 
4,500 freight cars. 

(2) Passenger coaches. — Passenger cars are few, speed is low, the rolling-stock 
locomotives and coaches are of the American style. The trains are light, con- 
sisting of up to 8-bogie carriages, weight behind tender 300 to 350 tons. All 
carriages are of the open-type; sleepers, American-style; baggage and mail cars 
are separate units. 

(3) Freight cars. — Freight cars consist of four-wheeled and four-bogie cars; 15-, 
20-, 30-, and 40-ton carrying capacity. There are few special cars in use. 

(4) The railways are the principal land transport in Korea. Motor traffic is 
negligible except in the larger towns. The principal center of the railroad sys- 
tem is Seoul (Keijo) and Heijo. The ports are the termini. A considerable 
number of narrow-gage light railways serve as feeders from the outlying districts. 



84 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
79-80 



(5) The principal lines are a trunk line from Fusan via Keijo, Heijo to Shingshu 
on the Manchurian border; thence by a long bridge across the border to Antung 
and Mukden, where it connects via the Manchurian system with all parts of that 
country. The second main line runs from Keijo to the east coast at Gensan; 
thence to the northeast corner of the country, to the ports of Seishin, Rashin, 
and Yuki. Most of the other lines are in the western half of the peninsula. 

(6) "Existing routes into Manchuria are at Antung and at Kamisambo-Nanyo. 

(7) New construction, now nearing completion, aims at provision of a second 
main south-north line and cross-country lines from harbors on the Japan Sea to 



Manchuria. 

(8) Keijo-Taidan — 167 kilometers, double track. 

(9) Government railways — standard gage: Kilometers Miles 

Route mileage 3, 867 2, 417 

Double track 170 100 

Total main line track 4, 037 2, 425 

Sidings (approximately) 1, 000 625 

(10) Government Railways — 2'6" gage: 

Route mileage 203 127 

Sidings 30 20 

(11) Private companies (railways and tramways): 

Route mileage 1, 327 830 

(12) Bus routes: 

Route mileage 26,000 16, 250 



EE 80. Miscellaneous Land Transport Facilities. — a. Bicycles. — Japan is one 
of the world's largest producers of bicycles and the bicycle is very widely used 
throughout the country. It is estimated that there are approximately 7,000,000 
bicycles in Japan and their use as a means of transport should not be underesti- 
mated. There is a standard army type of heavy construction designed along 
English lines, with front- and rear-wheel brakes and large wheels. The Japanese 
army has made wide use of the bicycle in all campaigns of the present war. In 
practically all of its campaigns the Japanese army has seized private bicycles in 
the invaded territory and used them for transport purposes. 

b. Motorcycles. — The standard motorcycle of the J apanese army is a twin-cylinder 
Harley-Davidson type of 1,500-cc displacement. This design has an unusually 
high road clearance, with large wheels, and is of very heavy construction. When 
used with a side car, a reverse gear is incorporated in the transmission. This is a 
satisfactory military vehicle. One design includes a mount for a 7.7-mm machine 
gun on the side car. Detachable shields can be fitted to both side car and motor- 
cycle. 

c. Motor tricycles. — The commercial motor tricycle (Sanrinsha) is a purely 
Japanese design developed during the past 12 years. With a rated capacity of 
1,000 pounds, these light vehicles often carry a ton and have been used by the 
Japanese army in Japan proper and to some extent in North China and Man- 
churia. Engines vary in size from 300 cc to 1,000 cc; practically all are single- 
cylinder. The smaller type are chain-driven but the larger are shaft-driven. All 
have three speeds forward and one reverse. 



85 



FM-E 101-10 

81 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 81. Watee Transport. — a. Known tonnage as of December 7, 1941. — 



/ 

Gross tons 


e 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


■Tankers 


Combination ves- 
sels 


Freighters 


Public service 
vessels 


Total all types 


No. 


Total 
tonnage 


No. 


Total ton- 
nage 


No. 


Total ton- 
nage 


No. 


Total 
tonnage 


No. 


Total 
tonnage 


1,000-2,000— 
2,000-3,000— 
3,000-4,000— 
4,000-5,000— 
5,000-6,000.... 
6,000-7,000.... 
7,000-8,000— 
8,000-9,000— 
9,000-10,000— 
10,000-12,000- 
Over 12,000... 

Total. . 


3 
1 
1 

5 
3 
11 
13 
8 
14 
5 


3,299 
2,417 
3,271 
0000 
27,672 
19, 072 
80,517 
106, 103 
76, 793 
141, 775 
90, 916 


36 
39 
29 
14 
14 
12 
9 
5 
17 
15 
8 


51, 251 
100, 041 
96, 727 
60, 103 
75, 998 
76, 970 
68, 223 
42, 459 
161, 754 
164, 073 
125, 731 


240 
187 
147 
138 
167 
104 
47 
30 
4 


364, 820 
465, 336 
502, 266 
620, 322 
927, 124 
685, 696 
340, 502 
253, 888 
38,209 


2 
9 
11 


2,731 
21, 562 
38, 913 


281 
236 
188 
152 
186 
119 
70 
48 
29 
29 
13 


422, 101 
589, 356 
641, 177 
680, 425 
1, 030, 794 
781, 738 
511, 204 
402, 450 
276, 756 
305, 848 
216, 647 










3 


21, 962 



























64 


' 551, 835 


198 


> 1, 023, 330 


1,064 


' 4, 198, 163 


25 


< 85, 168 1,351 

1 


5, 858, 496 



' 13 of these, totaling 224,147 gross tons, have a maximum speed of over 18 knots and are probably operating 
as fleet auxiliaries. Tankers are of modern design and construction, 42 of the 64 having been built since 1927. 

' 58 of these vessels, totaling 521,755 gross tons, have a normal sea-cruising speed of over 15 knots; 57 vessels, 
totaling 400,941 gross tons, were built during and since 1930; 80 vessels totaling 366,672 gross tons were built 
prior to 1920. 

a Approximately 310 of these vessels totaling 1,150,000 gross tons have a maximum speed of 15 knots or 
over; 479 vessels totaling 1,683,374 gross tons were built prior to 1920; 382 vessels, totaling 1,674,949 gross tons, 
were built during and after 1930. 

1 The majority oi Japan's public service vessels are ferries operated by the Ministry of Railways, princi- 
pally between Japan and Korea. 

b. Summary. — Number Tonnage 

Known ships as of Dec. 7, 1941 1, 351 5, 858, 496 

Estimated unreported construction 1940, 1941 38 210, 395 

Estimated unlisted vessels 105 300, 000 



Estimated ships as of Dec. 7, 1941 1, 494 6, 368, 891 

c. Seizures and acquisitions. — 


Gros3 tons 


Number 


Tonnage 


Gross tons 


Number 


Tonnage 


1,000-2,000 


46 
33 
22 
5 
17 
XI 


66, 115 
80,818 
75, 379 
23,455 
89, 932 
71, 222 


7,000-8,000 


7 
2 
1 
8 


52,042 
16,437 
9,877 
111, 349 


2,000-3,000 


8,000-9,000 


3,000-4,000 


9,000-10,000..- 


4,000-5,000 


Over 10,000 


5,000-6,000 


Total 


6,000-7,000 


152 


596,268 







86 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
81 



c. Seizures and acquisitions. — Continued. 



Nationality of ships acquired or seized 


Number 


Tonnage 


Axis 


36 

90 (i 72) 
24 
2 

152(U34) 


193, 899 

280,986 (1235,239) 
114, 089 
7,652 

596,626(1550,879) 


Allied 


French.. _ __ 


Neutral 





i Adjusted for Allied ships probably sunk or scuttled, or constructive total loss. 



d. Estimate of Japanese shipping position as of June 1, 194% (vessels over 1,000 
tons) . — 



/ 




S 


4 




6 | 7 


Freighters and pas- 
senger vessels 


Tankers 


Total 


No. 


Tonnage 


No. 


Tonnage 


No. 


Tonnage 


Estimated tonnage as of Jan. 1, 1942 
(excluding losses) 

Estimated gains through capture, 
seizure, and acquisition as of June 
1, 1942: 

(1) Allied 

(2) Axis 

(3) French... 


1,430 

75 
35 
24 
2 

25 


5, 817, 056 

222, 450 
188, 786 
114,089 
7,652 

106, 000 


64 

3 
1 


551,835 

12, 789 
5,113 


1,494 

78 
36 
24 
2 

28 


6, 368, 891 

235,239 
193, 899 
114,089 
7,652 

125, 000 


(4) Neutral.. 






Estimated new construction (Jan. 1, 
1942-June 1, 1942) _. 

Less: 

Estimated war losses (Dec. 7, 1941- 
June 1, 1942) 

Estimated marine casualties (Oct. 1, 
1941-Junel, 1942) 


3 


19,000 


1,591 


6, 456, 033 


71 


588, 737 


1,662 


7, 044, 770 


125 
8 


676, 091 
25,000 


14 


102, 519 


139 
8 


778, 610 
25,000 


Estimated tonnage available to 
the Japanese as of June 1, 1942 






133 


701,091 


14 


102, 519 


147 


803, 610 


1,458 


5, 754, 942 


57 


486, 218 


1, 515 


6, 241, 160 



87 



FM-E 101-10 

81 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



e. Summary estimate as of June 1, 1948: 

Estimated tonnage available to the Japanese as of June 1, 



1942 (round figures) 6, 240, 000 

Estimate of required tonnage June 1, 1942: 

Economic supply of Japan and her troops in 

China and Manchuria 3, 000, 000 

Naval auxiliaries 400, 000 

Lay-ups and repairs 700, 000 

Unusable types, domestic services, etc 100, 000 

Supply of troops and present transport needs 

in southern occupied areas 900, 000 

5, 100, 000 



Available tonnage for additional operations 1, 140, 000 

/. Special transports. — The Japanese have developed a special type of transport 
to carry troops and small landing craft. The transports have sliding or rolling 
doors on their sides, permitting landing craft berthed on rollers to be rolled into 
the water fully loaded with men and equipment. At least some of the transports 
also have rear slide hatches, or ramps, with which to load and unload heavy 
equipment. 

g. Landing craft. — Six types of these have been developed. Most of them are 
featured by double keels (for stability and strength) and by armored bows which 
can be dropped to permit field guns and small tanks to be run off the boats onto 
the beach. The armored fronts are capable of stopping .50-caliber bullets, but 
.30-caliber fire will penetrate the sides. The different types and some additional 
characteristics of the boats are as follows: 

(1) Type A. — This is a large, open boat on the bow of which is a landing ramp 
which falls forward onto the beach, thus enabling guns to be wheeled off. The 
engine and coxswain usually are protected by bullet-proof plating. It is used by 
main landing forces. The approximate over-all length of the boat is 50 feet and 
the length at the water line is 41 feet. The length of the beam is 12 or 13 feet. 
The boats are propelled by low-speed two- or four-cylinder gasoline or Diesel 
engines and attain a speed of about 10 knots. It is estimated that the boats can 
carry 110 to 120 fully-equipped men. 

(2) Type B. — This boat, small and of open type and holding 50 to 60 men, is 
used by the initial covering party. It has an over-all length of 20 to 40 feet and is 
powered with a two- or four-cylinder gasoline or Diesel engine. Some of the boats 
have bullet-proof shields and light machine guns in the bow. 

(3) Type C. — This is an armored motor launch used for close support, recon- 
naissance, and maintenance of communication. It is approximately 40 feet long 
and has a beam of 12 to 13 feet. The boat, constructed of steel plate, is believed 
capable of attaining a speed of 15 knots. 

(4) Type D. — It is used solely as a towboat, supplementing type A. The boat 
has an approximate over-all length of 30 feet and a beam of 10 feet. It is con- 
structed of wood, and is similar to a standard motor launch. 

(5) Type E. — This is an airplane-propeller-driven boat, about 50 feet long and 
10 feet wide, which was designed for use in shallow or weed-infested water. About 
10 feet of the forward underwater body rises above the water when the boat is 
going at full speed. The draft at light load appears to be not over 2 feet. 

(6) Type F. — It is constructed of steel plates and is of two sizes — 30 feet over-all 
and 40 feet. It has a beam of 12 feet and a speed of about 9 knots. 



88 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
81 



h. Motor torpedo boats. — Characteristics of the boats are as follows: 

(1) Length: 32 feet, 6 inches to 49 feet. 

(2) Beam: 6 feet, 6 inches to 9 feet, 9 inches. 

(3) Body: Flat-bottom steel frame, wood planking. 

(4) Motor: Radial-cooled aircraft engine with reduction gear and angle drive 
up to 400 ground-maximum horsepower. 

(5) Armament: Two torpedo tubes mounted on each side, four depth charges, 
one machine gun. 

(6) Crew: Three or four. 

(7) Speed: 52 mph. or over. 

(8) Endurance: 10 hours at full speed if about 1,150 gallons of gasoline are 
carried. 

i. Tonnage calculations. — Various tonnage calculations for sea movement of 
Japanese forces, armament, and supplies have been estimated as follows: 

(1) Personnel and horses. — The tonnage allowances for troops and horses vary 
according to the length of the voyage, route taken, and season of the year. In 
each case a margin is allowed for a certain quantity of stores, coal, ammunition, 



and vehicles. short sea 

Long sea voyages 
voyages (S days) 

(tons) (tons) 

For each man 5 3 

For each horse 10 9 

(2) Materiel. — For every 1,000 tons of Japanese shipping, various vehicles 
(loaded), tanks, and other equipment can be shipped as shown in the following 
table: 

Trucks (3-ton) 12 

Trucks (30-cwt — approx. 1H tons) 23 

Trucks (1-ton) 40 

Tractors (field artillery) 50 

Cars 40 

Ambulances 30 

Howitzers (105-mm) 50 

Infantry guns (37-mm) 100 

Tankettes 30 

Light tanks 25 

Medium tanks 15 



(3) Ship dimensions in relation to tonnage. — The length, breadth, and draft of 
Japanese vessels in relation to tonnage is given in the following table: 



Draft 


Length 


Breadth 


Approximate 


(feet) 


(feet) 


(feet) 


tonnage 


15 


230 


33 


1,000 


19 


280 


39 


2,000 


21 


330 


44 


3,000 


23 


360 


48 


4,000 


25 


390 


51 


5,000 


26 


420 


53 


6,000 


27 


440 


55 


7,000 


28 


450 


57 


8,000 


28 


460 


58 


9,000 


29 


470 


59 


10,000 



89 



FM-E 101-10 

82 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 82. Roads and Bridges. — a. Japan. — The published figures of road mileage 
in Japan are practically meaningless since they include all sorts of alleys, lanes, 
and unimproved roads, and give no indication of the kind of surface. The latest 
official figures, which were published in 1937, show a total of approximately 
600,000 miles of roads. Of the 125,000 miles of road which are suitable for motor 
transportation, 100,000 miles are suitable the year round, and 25,000 during dry 
weather only. In 1935 there were approximately 120,000 bridges on roads 
suitable for motor transportation. Most of these are constructed to sustain a 
uniform load of 100 pounds per square foot. In 1937 there were 74,100 miles of 
highway bus routes in Japan. Because of construction difficulties, many sections 
of Japan are left without any roads, and connecting links between particular 
areas are very poor. 

6. Taiwan. — The road system of Taiwan is laid out according to strategic 
necessity. A main truck highway runs from north to south through the western 
coastal area and upon it converge many feeder roads. The east coast, on the 
other hand is only poorly provided with highways. In 1936, the 11,300 miles of 
road were classified as follows: concrete — 16; asphalt — 140; macadamized — 50; 
improved earth and gravel — 10,094; unimproved earth — 1,000. 

c. Chosen. — With the exception of a few main roads, most of the roads in 
Chosen are either ordinary cart roads or earth covered with unrolled gravel. 
There are 17,375 miles of classified roads divided as follows: First-class roads 
(over 24 feet in width) — 2,000 miles; second-class roads (18 to 24 feet in width) — 
6,200 miles; third-class roads (12 to 18 feet in width) — 9,175 miles. 

d. Manchukuo. — At the end of 1939 there were about 20,000 miles of roads 
in Manchukuo. Only about one-fourth of the roads were improved, these being 
chiefly earth, gravel, or clay. Bridges are well constructed of concrete and are 
suitable for military use. 

e. Occupied China. — Roads in operation in this area total upward of 15,000 
miles, in contrast to the prewar mileage of more than 20,000. A large proportion 
is of unimproved dirt, but main highways are largely surfaced. The surfacing 
is usually a low-cost type, consisting of clay or water-bound macadam, broken 
brick or stone, with gravel. Most of these roads are poorly maintained and the 
Japanese have made few improvements. 



90 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

83 



Section II 
TROOP MOVEMENTS 
■ 83. March Tables and Road Spaces. — a. Marching ability of various arms. — 



Arms 


Pace, speed, and distance 


Marching pace (meters 
per minute) 


Marching speed 
{.kilometers per hour) 


Distance per day 


Ordi- 
nary 


Quick 


Double 


Infantry 

Cavalry.. 

Mountain Artillery 
Field Artillery 

Horse Artillery 


lOp 

86 
86 

100 


86 

220 

145 
220 
(180) 
220 


145 
320 

320 
320 


4 


24 km (usually continuous march- 
ing at 6 hours per day). 


Type of 
pace 


Speed per 
hour 


Classification 


Distance 
( kilometers ) 


a 
a 

"A 
% 


7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


Brigade and group 

Eeconnaissance unit-. 
Officers' reconnais- 
sance. 


65 to 97.5 
97.5 to 130 
130 to 195 


Usually keep pace with the infantry. 

For short distances figures are same as for cavalry. 

Same as for cavalry. 



' The % pace means that in 1 hour the troop does 40 minutes trot and 20 minutes walk. 



6. Speed of armored force vehicles. — According to Japanese manuals a mixed 
mechanized force can cover between 60 and 70 kilometers (37-44 miles) in a day, 
the following being the normal speed on the march of columns of various types: 





Ordinary conditions 


Dim lights 


No lights 


Km per hr 


Mph 


Km per hr 


Mph 


Km per hr 


Mph 


Tank regiment 


8-12 


5-7H 


6-8 


3K-5 


4-6 




Light tank company 


12-18 


7*4-11 


6-8 


3^-5 


4-6 


2H-3M 


Truck column 


12-20 


7H-12M 


6-8 


3^-5 


4-8 





The following speeds are those given in instructions to drivers and indicate the 
speed to be adopted on receipt of the corresponding signal: 

Km per hr Mph 

Low speed 6 3% 

Ordinary speed 12 7% 

Fast speed 18 11 

Full speed: As fast as the terrain will permit, but not exceeding 35 km 
per hr. (21% mph). 



91 



FM-E 101-10 

83 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

c. Length of various units on the march and intervals between them (in meters): 
[Figures in parentheses are for pack-animal formations] 



Name o] units 



Combatant 
units 



Heavy 
baggage 
(rations, 
ammunition 
and baggage) 



Intervals 
between 
units 



Infantry: 

Army Headquarters. 

Division Headquarters 

Company 

Machine Gun Company 

Battalion (less unit trains)... 

With unit trains 

Infantry-Gun Company 

Regiment 

Cavalry: 

Squadron: 

2-Section Unit _. 

4-Section Unit 

Regiment: 

2-Section Unit 

4-Section Unit 

Horse Artillery Battery 

Machine-gun Company 

Brigade (less trains) 

Trains 

Field Artillery: 

Battery (less supply vehicles) 

With Supply Vehicles 

Battalion (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles 

Regiment (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles __ 

Regimental supply vehicles 

Mountain Artillery: 

Battery (less supply vehicles)... 

With supply vehicles 

Battalion (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles 

Regiment (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles 

Regimental supply vehicles 

6-inch Howitzers: 

Battery (less supply vehicles).. 

With supply vehicles 

Battalion (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles 

Regiment (less supply vehicles) 

With supply vehicles 

Regimental supply vehicles 

10-cm Gun Regiment - 

Heavy Artillery Brigade, Transport Unit. 
Field A A Artillery Unit 



200 
160 
75 
110 
440 
580 
170 
2,100 



210 
120 

500 
310 
450 
550 
3,000 
1,900 

220 
300 
1,050 
1,230 
4,000 
4,500 
400 

220 
330 
1,230 
1,400 
4,400 
5,400 
970 

320 
480 
1, 550 
2,000 
4, 100 
4,950 
4,950 
4,000 
5,000 
300 



200 
150 



95 
(135) 
25 (35) 
370 (500) 



200 
(320) 



1,000 
100 



j (390) 

J (1, 500) 
(250) 



400 

1,050 
1,050 



92 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
83 



Name oj units 



Engineers: 

Company (less unit trains) - 
With unit trains. 

Battalion (less unit trains) -. 
With unit trains 

Field Searchlight Unit 

Bridging Train _ 

Transport: 

Company 

Horse Depot.. 

Heavy Truck Company 

Signals: 

Signals Unit 

W/T Platoon 

Field Telegraph Company.. 

Balloon Battalion... 

Medical Unit 

Field Hospital 



Combatant 
units 



Heavy 
baggage 
(rations, 
ammunition 
and baggage) 



120 

190 
260 
. 400 
170 

2,000 (6,200) 

1, 600 (1, 610) 
130 (160) 
1,200 

200 (230) 
60 (30) 
400 (600) 
2,200 
800 (240) 
375 (440) 



60 
(60) 
120 
(150) 
45 



20 (25) 
40 (45) 



Notes: 

Foot units are calculated as marching in columns of 4. 

The table is based on the 2-Japanese books: "Notes on Tactical Operations on the Continent" (TAIR- 
IKU-SENJUTSO-SACYO-SANKO) and "Field Service Regulations" (JINCHU-YQMUREI). 



479414°— 42 7 



93 



FM-E 101-10 

83 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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94 



.a 



'JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
84 



■ 84. Railway Transportation. — a. Composition of trains and speed of rail- 
way. — One train of Japanese rolling stock consists of 28 to 30 coaches and cars of 
different kinds. Its arrangement is as follows: 



Elements 



Locomotive. - 

1st- and 2d-class passenger coaches. 

3d-class passenger coaches 

Temporary passenger coaches 

Covered freight cars 

Partly covered freight cars 

Cattle cars . 

Box cars 

Flat cars 

TOTAL 



Number of 
coaches and 
freight cars 



1 
1 

10 
10 
2 
3 
1 

(omitted) 



I 



Speed of train about 30 kilometers per hour. 
b. Accommodation for men, horses, and materials.- 



Single coaches, etc. 


Accommodation for 
men and horses 


Artillery accommodation 


Commissariat 
accommodation 


Officers 


En- 
listed 
men 


Horses 


Heavy 
guns 


Field 
. and 

medium 

artillery 
with 

ammu- 
nition 

wagons 


Moun- 
tain 
guns 


In- 
fantry 
guns 


Empty 
trucks 


Trucks 


1st and 2d class pas- 
senger coach. 

3d class and tempo- 
rary passenger 
coach, or covered 
freight car. 

Cattle car or covered 
freight car. 

Box car and flat car.. 


30 
















60 pack animals 
or 16 vehicles. 


70 
















12 
















1 


1 


2 


4 


8 











Notes: 

Medical equipment and engineering materials of a division are transported separately, about 49 coaches, 

etc., being required. 
Each train can accommodate only 600 to 700 men of all arms, fully equipped. 



95 



FM-E 101-10 

84 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



c. Number of coaches, etc., required for transportation of division. — According to 
preceding table the number of coaches, etc., required by a regular four-regiment 
division is as follows: 



Classification 



Number 



Type of coach, etc. required 



Officers 

Enlisted men- 



Horses 

Mountain guns — 

Infantry guns 

Empty trucks _ 

Stores, etc., carried by transport 
units. 

Medical and engineering stores 



TOTAL.. 



773 men 

24,427 men. 



8,150 head— 

36 pieces 

56 pieces 

499 vehicles. 
499 vehicles _ 



1st- and 2d-class coach 

3d-class or temporary passenger 
coach. 

Box cars or covered freight cars.. 

Flat cars 

..—do—. 

Box cars and flat cars. 

do 



Box cars_ 



The above table shows that 1,231 cars, etc., are required for transporting a 
division. If one train is composed of 30 cars, etc., then 41 trains are required, 
and, if composed of 28 cars, then 43 trains are required. Therefore, the average 
number of trains required is 42. 

d. Plan for rail movement. — 



Troops 



No. i Bn Ammu- 
nition Train 



Regit Cmdr In; 
Arty Inj Regtl 
Sig Sec (??) 



No. 2 Bn 



No. S Bn 



Commander. 



Officers 

Enlisted men. _. 

Train commander 

Station of departure.. 
Time 



Arrive UKAGUCHI- 



Passenger cars 

Substitute (or tempo- 
rary?) passenger cars. 

Horse cars. 

Baggage cars 



TOTAL. 



Major KIMUEA. 



28.. 

887*. 

1,909 

SHUK.KEN (?). 

1910/11 

12 

0630/11 

12 



17.. 



Col. SAKUMA. 



Major SUGIURA 



33. 



714 

1,713 

SHUKKEN (?). 

0200/11. 

~2 

1200/11 

12 

1 _ 

13 : 



827 

1,715 

(??) 

0440*/U- 
12 

0650/11. _ 
12 



17.. 



13. 



Major T A K A- 

NOBU. 
38. 
876. 
1,701. 

0500*/H. 
12 

1850*/1L 
12 

(??). 
7. 

(??). 
(??). 



*Practically illegible on original. 
?? Illegible on original. 

Note. — Totals as usual do not agree in most cases. It appears that all troop trains left at night — probably 
for security reasons. 



96 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
84 



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JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

85 



H 85. Waibr Tkanspobt — a Shipping capacity required for transportation of men, 
horses, and materials. — 

Classification Tonnage required 

1 man 3. 

1 horse 9 (equals 3 men). 

1 field gun 18 (equals 6 men). 

b. Number of transports and tonnage required for transportation of a division. — 
There is a difference between the organization of the Japanese four-regiment 
division and the three-regiment division. The following is the number of trans- 
ports and tonnage required for transportation of a regular four-regiment division. 

Classification Quantity Tonnage Reguired 

Men 25, 200 75, 600 (each man counted at 3 tons). 

Horses 8, 150 73, 350 (each horse counted at 9 tons). 

Guns 92 1, 656 (each gun counted at 18 tons). 



Grand total 150, 606 

Number of 3,000-ton transports required 150,606h-3,000=51. 

Number of 5,000-ton transports required 150,606-t-5,000=31. 

c. Mileage and time required from J apanese ports to Chinese main ports. — 



Starting point 



Destination 


Yoko- 
hama 


Nagoya 


Osaka 


Hiro- 
shima 


Nagasaki 


Maizuru 


Taka- 
matsu 


Kokura 


Darien 


1, 178 M 


1,075 M 


848 M 


733 M 


377 M 


940 M 


792 M 


614 M 




92 H 


83 H 


65 H 


56 H 


45 H 


72 H 


61 H 


57 H 


Tang-ku 


1, 398 M 


1, 275 M 


1,048 M 


933 M 


777 M 


1, 140 M 


992 M 


814 M 




108 H 


99 H 


81 H 


72 H 


60 H 


88 H 


77 H 


63 H 


Tsingtao. ___ _ .__ 


1, 152 M 


1,029 M 


802 M 


687 M 


321 M 


893 M 


746 M 


668 M 




89 H 


80 H 


62 H 


53 H 


41 H 


63 H 


58 H 


44 H 


Shanghai 


1, 648 M 


1, 025 M 


798 M 


683 M 


464 M 


889 M 


742 M 


564 M 




128 H 


79 H 


61 H 


53 H 


36 H 


69 H 


68 H 


44 H 


Canton _ 


1,640 M 


1,630 M 


1,432 M 


1, 300 M 


1, 124 M 


1,560 M 


1, 515 M 


1, 240 M 




127 H 


126 H 


110 H 


100 H 


87 H 


120 H 


116 H 


95 H 



Note: M = Nautical miles; H = hours. 



101 



FM-E 101-10 

85 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 
d. Sea transport plan for part of 5th division when leaving Japan.— 



Name of ship and 
tonnage 



ASO Maru (3,020 tons). 



SOMEDONO Maru 
(5,164 tons). 



SINGAPORE Maru 
(5,852 tons). 



HAKODATE Maru 
(5,312 tons). 



DAITO Maru (5,425 
tons).- 



Unit! 



Men 



Officers 



[21st Infantry Brigade Headquar- 
ters. 

21st Infantry Begiment Head- 
quarters. 

.1st, 2d, and 3d Companies 

'1st Battalion of the 21st Eegiment 

(less 2d and 3d Companies). 
2d Battalion of the 21st Regiment 
(less 5th Company). 

divisional Signal Unit ■ 

3d Battalion of the 21st Infantry 

Regiment. 
5th Company of the 21st Infantry 

Regiment. 
Infantry-gun Company of the 

21st Infantry Regiment. 
Antitank-gun platoon of the 21st 
Infantry Regiment. 

Cavalry Squadron - - 

.Engineering Company 

42d Infantry Regiment Headquar- 
ters. 

1st Battalion of the 42d Regiment. 
9th and 10th Company of the 42d 
, Infantry Regiment. 
2d Battalion of the 42d Infantry 

Regiment. 
3d Battalion of the 42d Regiment 
(less 9th and 10th Companies). 
Antitank-gun Platoon of the 42d 

Regiment. 
Infantry-gun Platoon of the 42d 
Infantry Regiment. 



4 

7 

15 
10 

20 

6 
25 

5 



Enlist- 
ed men 



25 
10 

23 

15 

1 

4 



Total 



183 



540 
181 



431 



241 
631 



150 
100 



154 
201 
183 

631 
300 

631 

331 

48 

100 



,26 O, 696 
EM. 



36 O, 903 



Horses 



Num- 
ber of 
horses 



EM 



47 0,1,324 
' EM 



,420,1,114 
EM 



45 0,1,110 
EM 



83 



83 



Total 



.204 



159 
35 



245 



, . _ _ . Hiroshima 

Point of embarkation — - A 2 

Date of embarkation - - - - (Korea) 

Destination — - - " Aug. 4 

Date of disembarkation.- - - 



102 



JAPANESE FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 

85 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, 



ENEMY FORCES 



V « 

■si 


Other details not 
given in original. 
2-3 No. 7 Troop 
Mtn Arty sug- 
gests that 33 
Mtn Arty Regt 
is also organized 
on the basis of 3 
guns per troop 
instead of 4. 

Other details not 
given in original. 
M No. 8 Tr— see 
note above. 










Loading 
date 








Baggage (No. 
of packages) 








Horses 








Total 


CI — 

«o co 
a i- 


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men 








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CO 


Lt. Col. YAOI, 
33 Engs. 

MaJ. TAKA- 
NOBTJ. 


Units 


No. 7 Co.; No. 
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2 Bn's MGs; 
No. 9 Co; 
Am Tn, 2/3 
No. 7 Trs, 
Mtn Arty; 
Hq 33 Engr 
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Co Engr 
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No. 10 Co; 
No. 11 Co; 
No. 12 Co; 
H No. 3 
Bn's MGs; 
1/3 No. 8 Tr, 
33d Mtn 
Arty. 


Tons 


5,708 
5,287 


Speed 


9.0 
10.0 


Name 


GENZAN Mara 


PANAMA Mara... 


Ship 
No. 


&5 53 



104 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
86 



CHAPTER 3 



SUPPLY 



Section I. Organization and responsibility. 
II. Supply data.. 



Paragraphs 

86-87 

88-89 



Section I 



ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITY 



■ 86. Supply Methods. — a. Procurement and supply of base depots is the re- 
sponsibility of the Minister of War for all classes of supply. 

b. Base depots are the rear terminals of the line(s) of communication (LC), 
and are set up to receive, store, and forward all classes of supplies. 

c. LC organizations are responsible for receiving, billeting, rationing, and for- 
warding replacements, men, and materiel, as well as supplies; for evacuation of 
casualties, prisoners of war, excess supplies, salvage, and captured equipment; 
for requisition of local supplies; for organization and operation of wagon trains 
from local equipment; and for local defense of LC installations. 

(1) Troops and local levies are at their disposal for carrying out these functions. 
These include headquarters, signal detachments, LC Wagon Companies (60 tons 
capacity each, 250 men per company, attached on basis of four per division and 
4 per army troops), Trk Cos (about one-fourth the number of Wag Cos)., trans- 
portation supervision detachment (one per local company organized), LC hospital 
(one per division), reserve troops (LC defense), reserve engineers (road work 
and construction), light railway detachment (62 miles of track for base depot 
area), and Labor Troops (handling supplies and construction). 

(2) LC handles supply forward to the LC head where it is transferred to the 
division transport regiments. These carry to the unit field trains. 

(3) Lines of communication are set up along a main supply line (road, rail, or 
water). They have length without distribution in depth. They are generally 
set up on the basis of one per division. There is a great dependence upon comman- 
deered equipment for supplemental transport. 

d. There is very little supply movement except ammunition and rations. The 
Japanese soldier is taught to live off the country as much as possible in order to 
cut down on supply transportation. This is possible because of the nature of the 
terrain in which a great deal of his fighting is done. The individual soldier carries 
1 day's ration and 5 days' supply of rice. The individual soldier's pack weighs 
about 60 to 65 pounds, including rations and ammunition. Principal method of 
supply transportation is a cart with about 400 to 800 pounds capacity. Change 
to motor transport is being made where and when possible. 



105 



FM-E 101-10 

87 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




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106 



JAPANESE FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
88-89 



Section II 
SUPPLY DATA 

■ 88. Ammunition Supply. — The following table is an approximation of the 
amount of ammunition that is carried within the division: 



Weapon 


Unit of fire 
(rd. per gun) 


Regiment (rd. 
per gun) 


Div trans- 
port (rd. per 
gun) 


Div total (rd. 
per gun) 


75-mm Gun _. . 


300 


303 
178 
156 
160 


277 
160 
60 
80 


580 
338 
216 
240 


105-mm How _ __ __ _ 


75-mm Mtn Gun _ _ 




70-mm In! Cannon... _. 




37-mm Gun _ _ 




Grenades _ 










HvMG 




9,600 


5,875 


15, 475 
2,970 
330 


LMG 




Eifle _ _ 




180 


150 







■ 89. Ration Supply. — Three days of ration and forage supply are carried 
within the division: 1 day on the unit field train, and 2 days within the division 
transport. 



107 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 



PART THREE— ITALIAN FORCES 
CHAPTER 1 
ORGANIZATION 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Political __ 90 

H. Field forces, army and corps 91-92 

III. Division organizations 93-101 

IV. Miscellaneous combat units and engineers 102-107 

V. Air Force 108 

VI. Black Shirt militia units.. 109-111 

VII. Characteristics of materiel 112-116 



479414.°— 42 8 



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FM-E 101-10 

90 STAFF OFFICERS' 



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ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
91 



Section II 

FIELD FORCES, ARMY AND CORPS 

■ 91. Army. — a. Army group. — Composed of from one army with two attached 
corps to five armies. 

6. Army . — Composed of two or more army corps. 

c. Corps. — Organization of army corps is elastic. Composed of two or more 
divisions, three being normal number. Each type corps has a normal allotment 
of corps troops, and additional may be assigned as needed. See paragraph 92 
for composition of these types of corps. 

d. Divisions.- — (1) Following is a list of types of Italian division (see charts for 
composition) : 

Binary Infantry Division. 

Motor-Transportable Infantry Division (Metropolitan type) . 

Motor-Transportable Infantry Division (Libyan type). 

Motorized Infantry Division. 

Binary Infantry Division (Mountain type). 

Alpine Division. 

Fast-Moving ("Celere") Division. 
Armored ("Corazzata") Division. 
(2) Infantry Division Staff consists of — 
Commanding General and Aides. 
Chief of Staff. 
General Staff: 

Operations and Services. 

Information. 

Personnel and Administration. 
Artillery Officer. 
Engineer Officer. 
Medical Officer. 
Commissary Officer. 
Veterinary Officer. 



(3) Infantry Division Headquarters consists of — Officers men 

Hq and General Staff 27 

Hq Troops: 

HqCo. 1 71 

Topo Sec 1 6 

Mtr Prk 1 27 

MPs— 3 Sees 3 195 

Post Officer 1 3 

TOTAL 34 302 



111 



FM-E 101-10 

92 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



27 

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93-94 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

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96 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 



98 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 
98 



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99 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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100 STAFF OFFICERS' 



FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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123 



FM-E 101-10 

101 STAFF OFFICERS' 



FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 




ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10; 
101 



SO 

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Machine guns and tank guns 
arc tank armament. 

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Also 48 caissons. 






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FM-E 101-10 

102 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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126 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
103-104 



■ 103. Army Antiaircraft Regiment (Table of organization). — 

[Regiment may have varying number of battalions. Regiment is normally assigned to army artillery. 
Battalions detached and assigned to corps artillery.] 



Unit 



10 



Special trks 



Hq & Hq Btry. 



1st Bn: Hq and Hq Btry... 

Sound Locator Sec. 

3 Btrys, 75/27-mm C. K_. 



Combat Tn.. 



Total Bn _ 

2d Bn: Hq and Hq Btry 

Sound Locator Sec... 

3 Btrys, 75/46-mm Mod. 34. 



Combat Tn.. 



Total Bn 

TOTAL REGT.. 



65 

55 
29 
390 

85 

559 
55 
29 

405 



90 



579 
1,203 



24 



2 (1 rad and com, 1 machine 
shop). 

2 (S-L trks). 

9 (2 mtr caissons and 1 fire- 
control trk, each btry). 

15 (am trks and 1 machine 
shop). 

26 

2 (S-L trks). 

33 (2 mtr caissons, 4 tracs, 1 Are 
control, 4 am trks and tlrs, 
each btry). v ' 

18 (includes 12 am, 1 machine 
shop). 

53 
81 



■ 104. Corps Artillery Regiment (Table of organization). — 



1 


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Unit 


Officers 


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Tractors 


Special trks 


Remarks 


Regt Hq and Hq Btry. .. 
3 Bns 105/28-mm Guns... 
3Bns 149/13-mm Hows... 


13 


130 








12 


3 


3 


2 


8 




3 




63 
63 


1,590 
1, 710 


18 
18 


36 


36 


78 
78 


18 
18 


12 
12 


15 
15 


63 
63 


81 
81 


54 
90 


Each battalion has 
three 4-gun firiDg 
batteries. 


TOTAL REGT . 


139 


3,430 


36 


36 


36 


168 


39 


27 


32 


134 


162 


147 



Note. — Each battalion has a headquarters, headquarters battery, 3 firing batteries and a combat train. 
Each firing battery has 4 pieces. 



127 



Flff-E 101-10 

105-107 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 105. Parachute Troops. — Upon last information, these existed as small, exper- 
imental units. German instructors have taken over their training, and it is 
assumed that organizational data will conform to that of the Germans. 

a. A parachute battalion consists of 29 officers and 297 men, organized into 3 
companies, each with 62 machine carbines, 54 light machine guns, and a mining 
platoon for demolition work. 

6. Personnel carry pistols, daggers, and hand grenades. There is also a com- 
munication section equipped with radio transmitters and air-to-ground receiving 
sets, and a medical section. 



■ 106. General Engineer Units. 1 — 



/ 


1 


. S 


4 


Unit 


O 


EM 


Remarks: 


Composite Co, Inf Div.. 


6 


350 


Hq and 5 Sees. Combines Engr and Com 








functions. 


Composite Co, Armd Brig ■_ 


3 


155 


Hq and 4 Sees.- Same functions as above. 


Composite Co, Mtz Div 


7 


345 


Hq and 4 Sees. Same functions as above. 


Composite Bn, Mtz Div 


17 


505 


Hq, 2 Cos and 1 Sec. Same as above. 


Mtz Bn (Autocarreggiata) 


16 


465 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Mtz and Wagon-Transported Bn 


18 


485 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Mtz and Pack Bn 


18 


545 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Wagon-transported Bn 


16 


525 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Wagon-transported and Pack Bn 


18 


585 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Pack Bn._ _.. 


18 


725 


Hq and 2 Cos. 



i These are classed as general engr units and combine the ordinary functions of such with their communi- 
cations functions. 



■ 107. Special-Function Engineer Units. — 



; 


t 


S 


i 


Unit 


O 


EM 


Remarks 


Bridge Co 


1 


133 


4 Sees. L bridges. 


Bridge Co 


1 


50 


2 Sees. No. 1 metal bridge. 


Ponton Bn— L Bridges 


22 


770 


Hq and 2 Cos. 16 ponton trks and 8 trestle 








trks. 


Ponton Bn— L Bridges with Bridge Hauling 


21 


695 


Hq and 3 Cos. 


Unit. 








Ponton Bn— Hv Bridges _ 


18 


800 


Hq and 2 Cos. 


Ponton Bn— Metal Bridges 


25 


556 


Hq and 2 Cos. 




15 


474 


Hq and 2 Cos. Aerial ropeway type A-l on 








heavy trk. 




6 


100 


1 anchored balloon. 


Cam Co 


7 


265 


8 Sees. 


Electrical Mechanic's Co 


7 


285 


Hq and 4 Sees; Co Prk, 5 Sees. 


Fire Fighting Co 


6 


285 


Hq and 4 Sees. 


Mining Bn 


16 


505 


Hq and 2 Cos. 




7 


65 


1 Sec 2 Sqds. 


Sit Operators 


6 


168 


3 Sees. 50-cm, 75-cm, and 90-cm Sits. 


Water Sup Co _ 


7 


255 


Hq and 5 Sees. 



128 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
108 



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109-112 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD 



MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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EM-E 101-10 

113 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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FM-E 101-10 
114 



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186 
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1 37-mm and 1 LMQ; 
or 2 LMQs. 

2 8-mms or 1 37-mm. 

1 20-mm; 1 8-mm... 
1 20-mm and 1 8-mm; 

or 2 8-mms. 
1 37-mm; 1 LMQ... 
1 37/40-mm; 2 8- 

mms. 
1 37-mm; 2 LMGs.". 
1 47/32-mm; 4 8- 

mms. 
1 47-mm; 2 8-mms.. 
1 47-mm; 1 LMG... 
1 47/32-mm; 3 

LMGs. 


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FM-E 101-10 

115 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



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135 



FM-E 101-10 

117-118 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



CHAPTER 2 
MOVEMENT 

Paragraphs 

Section I. Facilities 117-123 

II. Troop movements _ _ 124-126 



Section I 
FACILITIES 

■ 117. General. — a. Transportation -problems. — The maintenance of Italian rail- 
roads in recent years has become very lax, due to the following factors: 

(1) Production has been directed almost entirely toward military equipment. 

(2) The terrific strain imposed on the railroads in moving troops and their 
equipment. 

(3) The necessity of handling practically all imports by rail, due to the Allied 
Nations' blockade. 

(4) The heavy demands made by Germany on Italian exports necessitates the 
movement by rail of the largest part of these commodities. 

(5) The sale of Italian rolling stock causes the remaining trains to be loaded 
to maximum capacity with a consequent lowering in operating efficiency. 

6. Road transport. — The large quantity of cement in Italy makes road building 
relatively simple. However, the scarcity of trucks for internal transportation 
purposes, and the shortage of gasoline to operate them, nullifies the roads in reliev- 
ing the transportation difficulties. Because of this shortage there has been a 
marked trend toward the use of oil engines and engines using a fuel with an 
alcohol base called Robur — a mixture of gasoline and ethylic and methyl alcohol - 

■ 118. Animals: Type and Assignment. — 
Pack Animals: 

Mules — Horse pack battalion; Arty and Inf Regts. 

Sardinian horses — Normal type, Inf Regt; Mtn type, Alpine Regt; Inf 
Regt, Autotransportable; Inf Regt, Autotransportable, Libyan type; 
Combat Legion CC. NN. (Black Shirt militia); Cav Regt. 
Riding Animals: 

Saddle horses — Inf Regt, normal type; Inf Regt, Mtn type; Alpine Regt; 
Inf Regt, Autotransportable; Inf Regt, Autotransportable, Libyan 
type; Combat Legion CC. NN. (Black Shirt militia); Cav Regts. 



136 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 
119 



119. Motor Transport.- 



Types available 



Automobiles.. 
Autocarrette.. 



Lighter trucks. 



Heavy trucks.. 
Tractors 



Motorcycles 

Trucks— office. 



Auto Ambulances.. 

Auto Busses 

Trailers 



Fiat Autocarro— 18 BL 

Fiat Autocarro— 18 BLR _ . 
Fiat Autocassone— 18 BL. . 
Fiat Furconcino— 50 BM__ 

Fiat Autocarro — 621 

Fiat Autocarro— 618 CM... 
Fiat Autocarro— Do- 

vunque 33. 
Fiat Autocarro— Dovun- 

que 35. 
Fiat Autocarro— 633 NM__. 
Fiat Trattore— Pesante 

Campale 26. 
Fiat Trattore— Pesante 

Campale 30-30 A. 
Fiat Trattore— Leggero 31.. 
Fiat Trattore— Leggero 37.. 
Fiat C. C. I. Trattore— 708 

CM. 

Breda Trattrice — PES 32. . 
Breda Trattrice — PES 33... 
Ceirano Autocarro— 60 
CM. 

Ceirano Autocarro — 50 
CMA. 

Ceirano Autobagro— 47 
CM. 

Ceirano Autocarro— 47 
CM. 

Isotta Frashini Autocarro 

— D70NM. 
Isotta Frashini Autocarro 

— D80NM. 
Bianchi Mediolanum— 

1936. 

Bianchi— 68 A 

O. M. Autocarretta— 32-35. 
O. M. Autocarretta— 36 P. . 



Num- 
ber 



Unit to which ordinarily 
assigned 



Max. loads 



Per- 
son- 
nel 



Mtr 



All parts of army. 
Ini, Alp, and 
Divs. 

Inf, Alp, Mtr, and 

Celere Divs. 

All parts of Army 

Celere Divs and Arty 

Regts. 

All parts of army 

Autocentri and Tk 
Regts. 

Autocentri 

Autocentri 

Autocentri and Tk 
Regts. 



20-25 
20-25 



20-25 
12-15 
20-25 

20-25 



20-25 



Sup- 
ply 
(tons) 



3.4 
3.93 



.25 
2.4 
1.24 
1.98 

1.98 

4.94 



.49 



3.4 
1.99 
4.9 



24-30 
20-25 
20-25 
10 



2.96 

2.96 

2.96 

4.9 

2.96 

2.96 
.79 



Oper- 
ating 
radius 
(miles) 



125 
125 
125 
180 
100 
187 
176 

208 

235 
125 



100 
137 
44 



93 
140 

140 

224 

130" 

200 

160 

135 

192 
100 
100 



137 



FM-E 101-10 

119-121 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 119. Motor Transport — Continued. 



/ 

Types available 


e 

Num- 
ber 


S 

Unit to which ordinarily 
assigned 


4 


5 


6 

Oper- 
ating 
radius 
(miles) 


r 

Basic use 


Max. loads 


Person- 
nel 


Supply 
(tons) 


0. M. Autocarretta— 36 
M. T. 

0. M. Autocarro — 40 M. P_ 
0. M. Autocarro— 1 CRD 








.89 

1.18 
2.96 
4.90 
1.70 


100 

250 
190 
190 
180 

180 

180 

180 

178 
176 
75 

75 
180 

150 








12-15 
20-25 
24-30 
16-20 






0. M. Autocarro — 3 BOD 






SPA Autocarro— 25 10 
RE. 

SPA Ambulanza— 25 10 
RE. 

SPA Frigorifero— 25 10 
RE. 

Autobus & Carro (SPA) 
SPA Autocarro— 38 R 
















1.30 






17-19 

20-25 
20-25 






2.40 
2.40 
4.90 

3.90 
4.90 

4.90 


SPA Autocarro— 36 






Daimler Trattice da— 100 
hp. 

Daimler Trattice da — 80 hp 
Lancia Autocarro — RO. 
NM. 

Lancia Autocarro — RO. 
BM. 
















24-30 
24-30 











■ 120. Air Transport. — 



1 

Type of plane 




Number 
available 


S 

Maximum 
personnel 


i 

Loads sup- 
ply (lb.) 


S 

Operating 
radius (mi.) 


6 

Basic use 


S-73 _._ 


24 
12 
12 
120 








Transport and bomber. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


S-74._. 








S-81 


18 
25 


■4,400 
■6,600 


372 
992 


S-82 





■ Bomb load. 



■ 121. Rail Transport. — a. Motive power.— With the exception of the Po Valley 
line, all the main Italian lines now use electric traction. The Brenner 
line is double-tracked and electrified, but its electrification is of the tri- 
phase variety. Tri-phase electrification is a particularly vulnerable 
type. It is in use over most of the lines in Italy. Due to the strategic 
vulnerability of this type, the lines that have been electrified since 1933 
have been supplied with direct current. This makes two kinds of electric 
current in use. Both the direct current and the tri-phase use overhead 
wires, and both use about the same voltage (3,000) . Whereas the Italian 
industry uses 50 cycles a-c, the railroads use 16.6 cycles. 



138 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101-10 

121-123 



6. General railroad facilities.— In June 1939 there were in Italy 23,252 kilo" 
meters of railway. Of these, 16,981 kilometers were operated by the State, and 
6,271 kilometers by private enterprise under State supervision. Of the State 
network, 4,856 kilometers were electrified. 

(1) Reports of electrification of all Italian railroads, June 30, 1939, show: 
Electrified 6,736 km. 

Non-electrified 16,516 km (1 km=0.62137 mile). 

(2) According to the latest information, Italian railroads operated by the State, 
December 31, 1938, comprised 16,354 kilometers of standard-gage track and 596 
kilometers of narrow-gage track. Private railroads had 2,701 kilometers oj 
standard and 3,570 kilometers of narrow-gage. 

(3) The density of the Italian railroad net is 6.5 kilometers to the 100 square 
kilometers, as compared with the French density of 11.6 to the 100 square 
kilometers. 

c. Railroads of Sicily (January 1, 1936). — Standard Narrow 

Real length 1,295 km 800 km. 

Maximum grade 0.25 percent.. 0.40 percent. 

Speed permitted roadbed 60-100 km 30 km. 

Practical speed of passenger trains 35-57 km 20 km. 

d. Rolling stock {standard and narrow) (June 30, 1939). — ■ 

Locomotives and rail motorcars: 

Steam 4,283 

Electric 1, 482 

Others 665 

Passenger and mail cars 8, 007 

Baggage and freight cars 132, 734 

■ 122. Water Transport. — 

Total tonnage available as of March 1, 1942 — 1,890,000 tons (est.). 
Tanker tonnage available as of October 1, 1941 — 414,870 tons — 61 ships. 

■ 123. Roads and Bridges. — a. Road types. — 



General types 


Capacities in vehicles per hour 


Load ca- 
pacities 


Construc- 
tion time 
per mile 


State roads— surface-treated and water-bound macadam- 
Provincial roads— surface-treated and water-bound mac- 
adam, bituminous conglomerate. 
Communal roads— waterbound macadam, bituminous 

conglomerate, unimproved earth and nonsurfaced. 
Autostrada— concrete. ___ 


Width: 27 feet plains, 16 

feet mountains. 
Width: 21 feet plains, 15 

feet mountains. 
Width: 18 feet plains, 6-9 

feet mountains. 






Private roads— water-bound macadam, unimproved 
earth and nonsurfaced. 















Available road nets. — (1) Autostradas (superhighways) : 
Turin — Milan — Bergamo — Brescia. 

Milan — Sesto C. (Lake Maggiore) : (1) Branch to Varese, (2) Branch to 

Varese — Como road. 
Padua — Mestre (Venice). 
Genoa — Serravalle. 
Pisa — Lucca — Pistoia — Florence. 



139 



FM-E 101-10 

123 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

Rome — Lido di Roma. 
Naples — Pompeii. 

(2) Main roads with right-of-way: 

Turin — Vercelli — Novara — Milan — Brescia — Verona — Vicenza — Padua — 
Mestre (Venice). 

Turin — Asti — Alessandria — Piacenza — Cremona — Mantua — Monselice — 
Padua. 

Milan — Piacenza — Parma — Reggio Emilia — Modena — Bologna — Forli — 
Rimini. 

Padua — Rovigo — Ferrara — Ravenna — Pesaro — Ancona — Pescara — Fog- 

gia — Bari — Brindisi — Lecce — Maglie 
Grimaldi — Impera — Savona — Genoa — La Spezia — Pisa — Leghorn — 

Grosseto — Civitavecchia — Rome — Naples. 
Fano — Foligno — Terni — Rome. 

(3) Good roads: 

Fiume — Trieste— -Mestre (Venice). 

Bologna — Florence. 

Florence — Leghorn. 

Brennero — Bolzano — Trento — Verona. 

Consenza — Catanzaro — Reggio Calabria. 

Palermo — Messina. 

Catania — Messina. 

Sardinia: Cagliari — Sassari. 

C. Bridges. — Statistics only on military bridges constructed by the engineers. 



Types oj construction 



Capacity 



Construction time 



Girder Bridge No. 1 

Girder Bridge No. 2 

Cantilever Steel Truss.,. 

Girder Bridge No. 3— Lattice Girder.... 
Footbridge No. 1— Floating Footbridge. 
Footbridge No. 2— Floating Footbridge. 




210 tons on 2 axles. 

210 tons on 2 axles. _ 

67 lb./I. F 

1 ton on 1 axle; 1.5 tons on 2 



Mountain Footbridge — Lattice Girder, deck 
type. 

Ponton Bridge No. 



axles. 

202 lb./I. F 



3 tons on pontons; 5 tons on 



trestles. 



Ponton Bridge No. 1. 
Ponton Bridge No. 2. 
Ponton Bridge No. 3. 



11 tons on 2 axles. 



12-18 tons.. 
672 lb./I. F. 



3 to 5 minutes per 

linear meter. 
20 minutes by 5 men. 



Haft "K" 

Cableway No. 1 — 3-cable shuttle _ 

Cableway No. 2 — 3-cable, semicontinuous. 
Cableway No. 3— 3-cable, semicontinuous. 



6 tons. 
606 lb. 
441 lb. 
551 lb. 



140 



ITALIAN FORCES 



FM-E 101 
124 



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FM-E 101-10 

124-126 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



6. Mechanized forces. — 



Unit 


On carriage roads of a grade of less than 10 percent 


In daytime 


Ordinary march 


Fast march 


Column of heavy tanks 


11.2 mph .' 


15.5 mph. 







■ 125. Tkoop Movement by Rail. — a. The typical military railway train in 
Italy comprises 40 cars and carries 1 battalion; 1 car for officers; 19 cars for 
troops; 12 open cars for wagons; 8 open cars for animals. 

6. The operating crew ranges from four to eight men. 

c. Thirty trains are required to move one division with 120 more trains for 
hauling artillery, ammunition, and materiel of the division. Italy has a capacity 
of 25% divisional trains. Equipment is therefore adequate for troop movement. 

d. On a single-track mountain line with grades from 10/1000 to 25/1000 with 
steam locomotive, not more than 30 trains each way may circulate in 24 hours. 
If there are double tracks the traffic can be doubled. 

■ 126. Tkoop Movement by Air. — 



Number of airplanes 



Type unit 



Time re- 
quired to 

procure 
airplanes, 
bases, and 
load 



When 
type o] 
move used 



Time required to move 
troops 



140 (model 582). 



Inf Eegt, 3,278 men and equipment. 



1,000 miles in 5 hours. 



142 



ITALIAN FORCES 



EM-E 101-10 
127 



CHAPTER 3 
SUPPLY 

Paragraph 

Section I. General data _ 127 

II. Supply units.- _ - 128 

Section I 
GENERAL DATA 

■ 127. Supply System. — o. Little information is available as to Italian supply 
methods. However, with their activities so closely related to German operations, 
it may be that their methods are greatly influenced by German domination in 
field action. 

b. Days of fire for infantry weapons are as prescribed below: 

Rounds 

Pistol. ' 10 

Grenade 4 

Rifle 60 

Machine rifle 1, 300 

MG Fiat 35 2, 000 

MG Breda 37 2, 000 

c. The following table shows the ammunition supply carried within the field 
artillery battalion: 



Weapon (mm) 



65/17 Alpine 

65/17 Pack 

75/15 Alpine 

75/18 Pack 

100/17 M1916.... 
100/17 (Light)... 
100/17 M1914.... 

75/27 Horse 

75/27 M1911 

75/27 (Light).... 

75/27 

105/28 

149/13 

149/35 

152/13 

152/37 

210/8 Mod. DS.. 

260/9 M1916 

305/10 

305/17 



With the 
battery (rds. 
per gun) 



260 
160 
156 
96 
72 
75 
72 
177 
128 
108 
204 
124 
48 



With the 
Bn Combat 
Tn (rds. per 
gun) 



250 
250 
159 
159 
180 
114 



144 
207 
203 
100 
100 
70 
70 



Total in Bn 
(rds. per gun) 



510 
410 
315 
255 
252 
189 
261 
250 
272 
315 
407 
224 
148 
70 
70 

27 
26 
15 
15 



d. Gas and oil supply is handled from central depots to Army auto parks and 
from there to division fuel sections. These fuel sections maintain a supply of 
a variable number of units. These units are sufficient to run a vehicle for 50 
kilometers (31 miles). 

143 



FM-E 101-10 

128 STAFF OFFICEBS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



Section II 
SUPPLY UNITS 
128. Animal Transportation and Transportation Units. 



Unit 



S 
EM 



Remarks 



Pack Transportation Sec 

Wag Sec - 

Mtn Pack Transportation Co (3 sees.) 
Wag and Pack Unit in Army Corps 

Wag and Pack Units in Army Corps 
(3 Cos). 

Wag and Pack Units in Div 

Wag and Pack Unit- _ 

Army Wag Squadron 



120 

140 
410 
29S 

925 

840 

435 
985 



100 pack animals. Mtn p ack transportation sec 

is the same. 
120 draft animals, 60 wags, 1 bcl and 9 mtr trids. 
312 pack animals, 4 wags. 
Wag sec and pack sec. 100 pack animals and 

62 wags. 

As many units as there are divs in the army 
corps. 300 pack animals and 192 wags. 

As many units as there are regts in the div. 
624 pack animals and 10 wags. 

2 wag sees— 122 wags. 1 pack sec— 100 animals. 

As many cos, 2 sees each, as there are army 
corps in the Army. 372 wags. 



144 



FM-E 101-10 

MISCELLANEOUS DATA 129-130 



PART FOUR — MISCELLANEOUS DATA 
CHAPTER 1 
UNIFORMS, EQUIPMENT, AND INSIGNIA 

Paragraphs 

Section I. German __ _._ 129-131 

II. Italian _ r 132-133 

III. Japanese _._ _ 134-135 

Section I 
GERMAN 

■ 129. Uniforms. — 

Enlisted men Officers 

Headgear: 

Helmet painted gray. Lugs for face shield. Scuttle shape. 



Greenish-gray oversea cap, can 
be worn under helmet. 



Oversea cap of greenish-gray, 
black leather visor, dark gray- 
green band. 



Blouse: 

Greenish-gray, darker shade collar. 

Collar may be folded back and Choker collar, 

left open at the neck. 

Black soft-leather belt, dull white metal buckle. 
Trousers and breeches: 

Gray trousers tucked into half-length boots. 
Gray breeches with leather "facings" and riding boots. 

Overcoat: 

Gray, doublebreasted, dark green collar. 
■ 130. Personal Equipment. — 

o. On the man. — Pack (haversack for mounted troops) ; shelter half, complete 
with ropes, etc.; canteen and cup, mess kit and utensils; gas mask and cape; 
entrenching tool and sidearms; iron ration; nap case and message book; whistle 
and field glasses. 

b. On the transport. — Overcoat, shoes, shirt, towel, socks, housewife, shaving and 
cleaning kit, iron ration, canvas clothing, drawers and scarf. 

Note.— Chief consideration is to have uniform light, comfortable, weatherproof, and inconspicuous. 
Officers' uniforms in the field must conform to cloth and quality of the ranks. 

c. Special uniforms. — 

Armored troops — Loose-fitting black uniform with a black beret. 
Mountain troops and - rifle battalions. — Oversea cap with visor, ankle 

puttees and ankle boots. Rucksack and large canteen. 
Other special uniforms to meet the needs of the situation. 



145 



FM-E 101-10 

131-132 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



■ 131. Insignia. — a. Branch of service. — Colored piping of shoulder strap and 
colored center of collar patch. Concealed or removed usually for combat. 

White and green Infantry and rifle troops. 

Rose Tank and antitank units. 

Grass green Motorcycle units. 

Gold yellow Cavalry and bicycle units. 

Copper brown Reconnaissance units. 

Bright red Artillery. 

Black Engineers. 

Lemon Signal. 

Bright blue Transport troops. 

Dark red Chemical warfare. 

b. Rank insignias on shoulder straps. — 

General officers Two heavy silver-lace strands twisted with 

one gold-lace strand. 

Major General No gilt star superimposed. 

Lieutenant general One gilt star superimposed. 

General Two gilt stars superimposed. 

Colonel general Three gilt stars superimposed. 

Field officers " Heavy silver lace twisted in two strands. 

Major No gilt star superimposed. 

Lieutenant colonel One gilt star superimposed. 

Colonel Two gilt stars superimposed. 

Company officers Flat solid silver lace on foundation coloring 

of arm of service. 

2d lieutenant No gilt star superimposed. 

1st lieutenant One gilt star superimposed. 

Captain Two gilt stars superimposed. 

Enlisted men: 

Privates first class wear diamond-shaped design in a circular sleeve 
patch. 

Junior noncommissioned officers wear chevrons. 

Noncommissioned officers (sergeant or higher) wear stripes of silver 
braid on shoulder patch. 

c. Unit designation. — Numerals on shoulder straps indicate regiment or 

similar unit. Shoulder-strap button carries number of company or 
similar unit. 

Section II 
ITALIAN 

■ 132. Uniforms. — The field uniform as prescribed is worn by officers and en- 
listed men alike. 

a. Field uniform (wool). — 

Headgear Gray-green field cap or steel helmet. 

Blouse Gray-green with open collar. No piping or embroid- 

ery. 

Shirt Gray-green, worn with collar and tie. 

Breeches Gray-green without stripes. 

Puttees Gray-green wrap leggings. Mounted and motor- 

transport troops may wear black leggings. 
Boots Black ammunition. 



146 



FM-E 101-10 

MISCELLANEOUS DATA 132-133 



b. Field uniform (tropical). — 



Headgear Khaki topee of cork with tinted goggles. Helmets 

painted a whitish color. 
Blouse Khaki cotton, with turn-down collar buttoning up to 

the neck. 

Trousers and Trousers with tight fit just above the ankles, cotton. 

breeches. Cotton breeches with puttees, leggings or stockings. 

Shorts are also worn. 
Boots Black ammunition. Also heavy tan hobnails. 



Black Shirt militia wear the same uniform except for a black shirt and tie. 
■ 133. Insignia. — a. Insignia of arm. — Worn on the front of all headdress. 
Stenciled on helmets. Metal insignia on caps and shoulder straps of officers in 
tropical uniforms. 

Regimental number shown in boss or center circle of arm insignia. 

Note. — Some of the old distinctive uniforms of the various units may still appear in some cases. There 
are innumerable special unit insignia which may be encountered. They follow a colored gorget sytem 
too extensive to enumerate. 



6. Insignia of rank. — 
Maresciallo d' Italia 



cap 

ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 



Shoulder Strap 



ft ft ft ft 



Generale d'armata 



ft 
ft 
ft 




Generale di Corpo d'armata 



ft 




Generale di divisione or tenente generale 



ft 
ft 




Generale di brigata or maggiore generale is same as above except that he 
has only one star. 



147 



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133-134 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



6. Insignia of rank.- — Continued. 



Colonnello 



Cap 



■& & -& 



Shoulder Strap 




Tenente colonnello and maggiore differ only in the number of stars; lieu- 
tenant colonel has two, and major has one. 



Capitano 



it it it 




Tenente has two stars arranged as capitano, and sottotenente has only one 
Warrant officers have shoulder straps with 1, 2, or 3 bands of yellow 
silk streaked with black, depending on their relative rank, and one 
band on their caps. Other ranks wear chevrons. Sergeant major's 
and sergeant's are yellow, the others red. 

Section III 
JAPANESE 



134. Uniforms. — 

Enlisted men 



Officers 



Coat: 



Olive-drab, cotton, or wool. 



Single-breasted, sack coat. 
Turned-down collar. 



Higher collar, shorter length. 
Cuff stripe of dark brown braid. 



Insignia of rank and organization on front edge of collar. 

Colored chevrons, denoting service, above flap of right pocket. 
Red — Infantry, including tanks. 
Yellow — Artillery. 
Green — Cavalry. 
Maroon — Engineers. 
Sky Blue — Aviation. 
Blue-Black- — Transport. 
Dark Green — -Medical. 
Black— Military Police. 



Trousers and breeches: 

Breeches and woolen olive-drab 
spiral puttees. 



Trousers with high waist and no 
cuff. 

Breeches and boots. 
May wear spiral puttees with 
either. 



148 



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MISCELLANEOUS DATA 134-135 



Shoes: 



Black shoes or boots. 



Heavy russet shoes. 
German type russet boot. 
Cap: 

Field: Olive-drab cloth, head-shaped, narrow visor and leather chin strap. 

Ventilation holes, adjustable slit in rear for size. Star on vertical 
front seam. 

Dress: Olive-drab color, similar to U. S. except smaller crown and shorter 
visor, red piping and headband. Star on headband in front, 
silver for officers and gold for enlisted men. Leather is black. 

Overcoat: 

Olive-drab wool, double-breasted, turndown collar, detachable hood. 

One, two, or three bands of 
brown braid to indicate com- 
pany, field, or general officer. 
Cape: 

Olive-drab wool, conventional 
type. Throat piece has bars 
of braid for rank as overcoat. 

■ 135. Insignia.— a. Unit insignia. — Arabic numerals are worn on collar flaps 
to indicate regiment. 
Special units wear regimental number on left and special ornament on 
right. 

Numerals and branch of service insignia removed for field service. 

Note.— Enlisted men's uniforms are generally ill-fitting but serviceable. In the field, officers conform to 
enlisted uniforms. Special types of uniforms are issued for special occasions, winter for Manchuria and China, 
tropical (shorts) for southern operations, etc. Predominant color is olive drab. Extensive use is made of 
conforming coloration in uniforms and camouflage nets for the individual. 



149 



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135 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



b. Insignia of grade. — Cloth patch on both collar flaps of the coat, overcoat, 
and cape. 

Privates — Plain red patch. 

-£r (yellow star)— 2d CI Pvt. 
•fr-fr (yellow star)— 1st CI Pvt. 
ixizix (yellow star) — Superior Pvt. 
(Stars are cloth). 


























■x-WMv-'W:*"':*:*;- 








*•■■ *; 









Noncommissioned oflicers — Plain red, 
one gold band. 

■ft (yellow) — Corporal, 
■fr-fr (yellow)— Sgt. 

(yellow) — Sgt Maj or 1st 
Sgt. 

(Stars are cloth.) 
Company officers — Red cloth, gold 
braid border, gold band center. 

-j!r (yellow metal) — 2d It. 
-fr-ft- (yellow metal) — 1st It. 
(yellow metal) — Captain. 




Field officers — Red cloth, gold braid 
border, 2 gold bands. 

■fc (yellow metal) — Maj, 
"kix (yellow metal) — Lt col. 
(yellow metal) — Col. 







iii 


★ 









General officers — Gold cloth, gold braid 
border. 

■ft- (yellow metal) — Maj gen. 
•fr-ft (yellow metal)— Lt gen. 
"fc-fr-fc (yellow metal) — Gen. 



IP 



RED 



GOLD BRAID 



GOLD BAND GOLDCLOTH 



150 



MISCELLANEOUS DATA 



FM-E 101-10 
136 



CHAPTER 2 
COMPARATIVE ARMY RANKS 



136. Table.— 



United States 



General 

Lieutenant general-. 

Major general. 

Brigadier general 

Colonel. 

Lieutenant colonel.. 

Major 

Captain 



1st lieutenant 

2d lieutenant 

Cadet officer 

Warrant officer (1).. 
Warrant officer (2).. 
Warrant officer (3) . 

Master sergeant 

1st sergeant 



Staff sergeant. 
Sergeant 



Corporal 

(Lance corporal) . 
Private 1st class. . 
Private 



Japanese 



Gensui.. 
Taish8.. 



Chujo... 
Shosho.. 
Taisa... 
Chusa— 
Shosa... 
Tail 



Chul.. 
Shoi.. 



Junshikan. 



Tokumu-Socho . 
Socho 



Gunso. 



Gocho.- 
Jotohei— 
Ittohei.. 
Nitohei. 



" Italian 



Maresciallo d'ltalia 

Generale d'armata _ 

Generale di corpo d'armata 

Generate di divlsione 

General di brigata 

Colonnello ___ 

Tenente colonnello _.. 

Maggiore 

Primo capitano 



Capitano- 



Primo tenente 

Tenente 

Sottotenente 

Maresciallo ufficiale... 
Maresciallo maggiore.. 

Maresciallo capro 

Maresciallo 

Sergente maggiore 



Sergente. 



Caporal maggiore. 



Caporal. 
Soldato. . 



Generalfeldmarschall. 

Generaloberst. 

General der Flieger. 

Generalleutnant. 

Generalmajor. 

Oberst. 

Oberstleutnant. 
Major. 

Hauptmann (all arms except 
cavalry and horse artillery). 

Rittmeister (cavalry and horso 
artillery). 

Oberleutnant. 
Leutnant. 



Oberfeldwebel. 

Feldwebel. 

Fahnrich. 

TJnterfeldwebel. 

Unteroffizier. 

Stabsgefreiter. 

Hauptgefreiter. 

Obergefreitor. 

Gefreiter. 

Oberschiitze. 

Mannschaften. 



151 



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137-139 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



CHAPTER 3 
COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS 

Paragraph 

Section I. Comparative monetary units __ 137 

II. Weights and measures ___138-139 



Section I 

COMPARATIVE MONETARY UNITS 

■ 137. Table.— 



Japanese 


Italian 


German 


lOrin— 1 sen 


5 centesimi=l soldo 


100 pfennigs=l mark. 

(1 mark=$.24 U. S. at par). 


100 son = l yen. 

(1 yen = $.84459X1. S.)-~ . 


20 centesimi=l quatto soldi _ 

50 centesimi=l mezzolira 

100 centeslmi=l lira (L.) 

(1 lira-$.0526 U. S.) 



Section II 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

138. German and Italian. — Both the Germans and the Italians use the 
metric system. In the table below the slight variations in spelling are 
shown, so that by combining the proper prefix with the proper unit the 
entire table of weights and measures can be obtained. 



English 


Italian 


Qerman 


milli- 


milli- 


milli- 


centi- 


centi- 


zenti- 


deci- 


deci- 


dezi- 


deka- 


deca- 


deka- 1 


hecto- 


etto- 


hekto- 


kilo- 


chilo- 


kilo- 1 



English 


Italian 


German 


meter 


metro 


meter 


gram 


gramma 


gramm 


liter 


litro 


liter 



■ 139. Japanese. — a. Distance and length. — 

Ri = 36 cho 2,160 ken =2.4403 miles.. 

Ri= (marine) = 1 knot 

Ken = 6 shaku=60 sun. __. =5.965163 feet. 

Shaku=10 sun=100 bu =0.994194 foot. 

6. Quantity, capacity, and cubic measures. — 

(4.96005 bushels 



Koku = 10 to =100 sho = 



Go. 



47.95389 gallons (liq- 
uid) U. S. A. 
5.11902 bushels (dry) 
. U.S.A. 



= 3.92727 kilometers. 
= 1.85318 kilometers. 
= 1.81818 meters. 
=0.30303 meter. 



= 1.80391 hectoliters. 



Koku (capacity of vessels). 



= 1 0th of a sho. 
= 10th of a ton. 



152 



FM-E 101-10 

MISCELLANEOUS DATA 139 



c. Weights. — 

(8. 26733 pounds \ 
iom?^- = 3 - 7500 kUograms - 
troy ' J 

1 1.32277 pounds l 

Kin==160 momme =J avoirdupois 1 = 0.60000 kilogram. 

1 1.60754 pounds troy J 
f 0.13228 ounce avoir- 1 

Momme=10fun = | dupois 1 = 3.75000 grams. 

[0.12057 ounce troy J 



153 



FM-E 101-10 

140 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 

CHAPTER 4 

COMPARATIVE MAP SYMBOLS FOR PRINCIPAL FIELD UNITS 
■ 140. Table of Map Symbols. — 



Japanese Italian German 



Army.. 

Army headquarters.. 

Army corps 

Corps headquarters.. 



Division.. 



Division headquarters- 



Motorized division headquarters.. 
Armored division headquarters. _. 



Alpine division headquarters 

Motor-transportable division headquarters.. 
Celere (fast) division headquarters. 



Infantry:. 



Brigade 

Brigade headquarters 

Regiment 

Regimental headquarters. 



Battalion. 



Battalion headquarters. 



Company.. 



A 

r 
c 

D 



B 



R 

e 

a* 



ft 

[go 

p 

P2m 



Q6 



pa 



t>- 



r 



p 

r 



■ or III 



154 



MISCELLANEOUS DATA 



FM-E 101-10 
140 



tfapajiese 



Company headquarters.. 

Bicycle company 

Motorcycle company 



Machine-gun company. 



Antitank company. 



Cavalry:. 



Brigade 

Brigade headquarters.. 



Regiment _. 

Regimental headquarters. 

Troop or squadron 

Field Artillery: 



Regimental headquarters (horse) 

Regimental headquarters (motorized).. 
Battery (horse) 



Battery (motorized). 



Mountain artillery:. 



Regimental headquarters. 



Battery.. 



K 

KB 



r 

A 
f 

BA 



> 



* 
x 



155 



FM-E 101-10 

140 STAFF OFFICERS' FIELD MANUAL, ENEMY FORCES 



Japanese 



Italian 



German 



Heavy field artillery. 



Battery of howitzers. 



Battery of guns- 



Antiaircraft artillery battery,. 



Observation post. 



Tank.. 



Brigade headquarters-. 



Heavy tank battalion 

Heavy tank company 

Medium tank battalion-. 



Light tank company.. 



Aviation unit.. 



SA 
m 
m 

i 



1 

I 



O 



156